which is negative if the image is reverted.

Let q and q' be the field angles, i.e. the angles of these segments seen from the origin O. We have n = z q and n' = z'q'. Since n q = n'q' in the Snell's law approximation, the transverse magnification is n' n z

Considering homothetic triangles in the object and image spaces, we may also represent the transverse magnification with Newton's conjugates respectively as

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