H3s

where ^ is the angular separation between the Sun and the Earth and {is given by cost—^ir- (,M7)

Thus, 0 when the attitude is at null or when the Sun and Earth are in the same direction. Conversely, d^-too when /?=0 or i)=0, Le., when the attitude is close to the Sun or the Earth.

Correlation Angle Derivation. The correlation angle between two arc-length measurements is simply the rotation angle, 4>, between the two reference vectors. That is,

where $ is measured from S to E about A.

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