In the above table, the angular radius, period, and energy required are valid for elliptical orbits of arbitrary eccentricity; however, the velocity is correct only for circular orbits. For noncircular orbits, h should be interpreted as the instantaneous altitude when determining the angular radius of the Earth and as the mean altitude when determining the period and required energy. The mean altitude is hm=(P + A)/2, where P and A are the perigee and apogee altitudes, respectively.


1. Abramowitz, Milton and Irene A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs and Mathematical Tables. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards, 1970.

2. Allen, C. W„ Astrophysical Quantities, Third Edition. London: The Athlone Press, 1973.

3. Cohen, E. Richard and B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, vol. 2, p. 663, 1973a

5. Müller, Edith A. and Arndst Jappel, Editors, International Astronomical Union, Proceedings of the Sixteenth General Assembly, Grenoble 1976. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1977.

6. Rossini, Frederick D., Fundamental Measures and Constants for Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press, 1974.

Aberration 144

Abnormal termination In mission support software, handling of 682-683

Absorption bands, in Earth's atmosphere 91 -92 Absorption of radiation, torque due to S72 AC two-phase induction motor, torque profile for 270-271

Acceleration, units and conversion factors 809 Accelerometers, as attitude determination reference 17

Acquisition of signal (See In-triggering,) Acquisition phase, of space mission 3-8

Active attitude control 18.503,506-509

Actuator (control system component) 502,589 Adams integrators 563-564

Adams-Bashforth integrators 563-564

Adams-Bashforth-Moulton integrators 563-564 Adams-Moulton integrator 563

Adaptive (liter, for state estimation 467

Adcole Corporation, Sun sensors 157,161-166 Adjoint, of a matrix 745

ADL (See Attitude data link) Advanced range instrumentation aircraft


AE (Atmospheric Explorer)— Application of block averaging to attitude solutions 371

Attitude determination accuracy 397

Attitude sensor bias evaluation 402

Attitude system of 788-789

Data collection for bias determination 475 Data curve fitting for 318

Data sample from AE-3 313

Earth-width data 233-234

Horizon sensors 177

Magnetic coil control system 509

Momentum wheel 202-203,601,602

Optimal magnetic maneuvers 640

Orbit generator accuracy 138

Pitch angle measurement 360

Shadow modeling for 573

Spin axis magnetic coils 205

Spin plane magnetic control 646,648-649 Stabilization method 503

Sun sensor 157

Telemetry data errors 311

Use of body-mounted horizon sensor 173 Use of carbon dioxide band horizon

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