The purpose of this book is to summarize the ideas, data, and analytic techniques needed for spacecraft attitude determination and control in a form that is readable to someone with little or no previous background in this specific area. It has been prepared for those who have a physics or engineering background and therefore are familiar with the elementary aspects of Newtonian mechanics, vector algebra, and calculus. Summaries of pertinent facts in other areas are presented without proof.

This material has been prepared by 35 members of the technical staff of the Attitude Systems Operation of the System Sciences Division of Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) for the Attitude Determination and Control Section of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It necessarily reflects our experience in this area and therefore is concerned primarily with unmanned, Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Nonetheless, the basic principles are sufficiently broad to be applicable to nearly any spacecraft.

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 10, and IS provide introductory material at a more qualitative level than that of the other chapters. The suggested order of reading depends on the background and interest of the reader:

1. Those who are primarily concerned with mission planning and analysis and who would like a general overview should read Chapters 1, 2, 3, 10, IS, and 22.

2. Those who are primarly interested in attitude determination should read Chapters 1 and 2, Sections 3.1 through 3.3, Chapter 10, Appendices A and B, and Chapters 11 through 14.

3. Those who are primarily interested in attitude dynamics and control should read Chapters I and 2, Sections 3.1 through 3.3 and 12.1, Chapters IS through 19, and Appendices C through H.

4. Those who are primarily interested in the space environment, attitude hardware, and data acquisition should read Chapters 1 through 9 and Appendices G through J.

5. Those who are primarily interested in the development of mission related software should read Chapters 1 and 2, Sections 3.1 through 3.3, Chapters 20 and 21, Chapters 8 and 9, Sections 11.1 and 11.2, and Chapters 12, 4, S, and 7.

The International System of Units is used throughout the book and a detailed list of conversion factors is given in Appendix K. Because nearly all numerical work is now done with computers or hand calculators, all constants are given to essentially their full available accuracy. Acronyms have generally been avoided, except for spacecraft names. The full spacecraft names are listed in Appendix I, which also provides a cross-referenced list of the attitude hardware used on various spacecraft, including all those used as examples throughout the text.

Because much of the material presented here has not appeared in the open literature, many of the references are to corporate or government documents of limited circulation. To improve the exchange of information, Computer Sciences

Corporation reports referenced herein are available for interlibrary loan through your librarian by writing to:

Head Librarian Technical Information Center Computer Sciences Corporation 8728 Colesville Road Silver Spring, MD 20910 Standard computer subroutines for attitude analysis cited throughout the book are available from:

COSMIC Barrow Hall University of Georgia Athens, GA 30601

by asking for Program Number GSCI242I, Attitude Determination and Control Utilities. Each of these subroutines is briefly described in Section 20.3.

The preparation of this book was a cooperative effort on the part of many individuals. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the help of Robert Coady, Roger Werking, and Richard Nankervis of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, who initiated and supported this project. At Computer Sciences Corporation, direction, support, and help were provided by Richard Taylor, David Stewart, Michael Plett, and Gerald Lerner. In addition to the authors, who provided extensive review of each other's sections, particularly helpful reviews were provided by Peter Batay-Csorba, Stanley Brown, Charles Gray, Lawrence Gunshol, William Hogan, Whit-tak Huang, James Keat, Anne Long, J. A. Massart, Donald Novak, Franklin VanLandingham, Donna Walter, and Chad Yang. Considerable assistance in obtaining reference material was supplied by Gloria Urban and the staff of the CSC Technical Information Center. Jo Border and the CSC Publications Department supplied a consistently high quality of support in editing, composition, and graphics. Jerry Greeson and the Graphics Department staff prepared nearly all of the 450 illustrations in the book. Figures 17-4, 18-19, and 19-15 are reproduced by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Anne Smith edited the final version of the manuscript and Julie Langston, the publications editor for the manuscript, did an outstanding and professional job of translating multiple early drafts into grammatical English, handling the numerous details of producing a finished manuscript, and preparing the final layout

Silver Spring, Maryland July 1978

James R. Wertz

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