## Keplers Legacy

Johannes Kepler was a brilliant scientist, sensitive, caring, and humble. In the infancy of modern astronomy and throughout the beginning of the age of reason, he gave his all to humanity without boast or regret, and often he held the work of others in greater appreciation than his own. His lifework helped lay to rest the mystery behind planetary motion and set humankind on the correct path toward understanding the dynamics of the universe. For this sacrifice through the best and worst years of his life, astronomy is truly grateful. Nothing remains of Kepler's tomb. However, his manuscripts survived and were purchased nearly a century later by Catherine II of Russia.

They are now preserved at the Russian Academy of Sciences' Pulkovo Observatory, near St. Petersburg.

CHRONOLOGY

1571 |
Born on December 27 in Weil der Stadt, Germany |

1577 |
Observes his first comet |

1580 |
Observes his first lunar eclipse |

1589 |
Enters the Protestant University of TÃ¼bingen, Germany, where he is introduced to Copernicanism |

1591 |
Receives his master's degree in arts, continues to study theology |

1594 |
Accepts the seat as professor of mathematics at Gratz, Austria |

1596 |
Publishes his famous work Mysterium cosmographicum (Secrets of the universe), in which he describes his new model of the universe |

1600 |
Accepts a job in Prague as assistant to Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe |

1604 |
Publishes Astronomia pars optica (The optical part of astronomy), in which he addresses atmospheric refraction for the first time |

1606 |
Publishes De stella nova (Concerning the new star) on the supernova of 1604 |

1609 |
Publishes Astronomia nova (New astronomy), outlining his first two laws of planetary motion |

1610 |
Publishes Narratio de observatis quatuor jovis satel-litibus (Narration about four satellites of Jupiter observed) in support of Galileo's discoveries using the newly invented telescope |

1611 |
Publishes Dioptrice (Dioptrics), in which he describes his new telescope structure |

1612 |
Forced out of Prague and accepts a job in Linz, Austria |

1617 |
Publishes Epitome astronomiae copernicanae (Epitome of Copernican astronomy), a book on heliocentric theory |

1619 |
Publishes Harmonice mundi (Harmony of the world), in which he describes his third law of planetary motion |

1627 |
Publishes the Tabulae rudolphinae (Rudolphine tables), which contains accurate predictions of the planets' future positions |

1630 |
Dies from illness on November 15 in Ratisbon, Germany |

Caspar, Max. Kepler. New York: Dover Publications, 1993. A definitive biography of Johannes Kepler, translated from German. Introduction and notes by Owen Gingerich. Kepler, Johannes; A. M. Duncan, translator. Secrets of the Universe (Mysterium cosmographicum). New York: Abaris Books, 1981. This is the first English translation of Kepler's original 1596 volume. Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed: A Biography of Johannes Kepler. New York: Doubleday, 1960. A well-written piece outlining the life and scientific accomplishments of Johannes Kepler. Rosen, Sidney. The Harmonious World of Johannes Kepler. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962. A compelling biography ofJohannes Kepler written for a younger audience. Voelkel, James R. Johannes Kepler and the New Astronomy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Designed for students in middle school and up, this is an easy-to-follow biography of Johannes Kepler that deals with his discoveries as well as his personal life. Web Sites Drennon, William L. "Kepler's Laws." Available online. URL: http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm. Accessed November 29, 2004. An animated Web page outlining Kepler's three laws of planetary motion. Provides a brief history of astronomy and biographies on Kepler and Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. Fowler, Michael. "Johannes Kepler." Available online. URL: http:// www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/1995/lectures/kepler.html. Accessed November 29, 2004. A brief biography on Johannes Kepler including line drawings, links to other astronomy-oriented lectures, and references. |

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