Expansion rate for an open Universe. Examine what equation  says qualitatively about the time development of the Universe. What happens to the expansion rate dR/dt for R very small and R very large? Is there any value (or limiting value) of R for which the expansion rate goes to zero?
Write equation  in a form similar to that of equation . Interpret the resulting equation in terms of Newtonian energy of a dust particle. In this case is the total energy of the dust particle positive, negative, or zero?
Integration of dR/dt. Prepare for integration of equation  using the change of variables in equation . Show that the result is dJ = ±
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