Build Your Own Boat
If the urges to colonise or explore new lands are not sufficient to extend the range of human activities far beyond the Earth, what then of commerce Might we mine the asteroid belt, the moons of Jupiter and the frozen comets of the Oort Cloud for materials precious to human civilisation Might trade ships criss-cross the Solar System in the 22nd century in the same manner that sailing ships circled the globe in centuries gone by And might these same ships be the nucleus of a society adventurous enough to venture beyond the Sun
Even if there were absolutely no technical limits to the power of telescopes, our observations are still bounded by a horizon, set by the distance that any signal, moving at the speed of light, could have travelled since the big bang. This horizon demarcates the spherical shell around us at which the redshift would be infinite. There is nothing special about the galaxies on this shell, any more than there is anything special about the circle that defines your horizon when you are in the middle of an ocean. On the ocean, you can see farther by climbing up your ship's mast. But our cosmic horizon cannot be
Now, human interventions are not necessarily minor happenings in the Great Dance. Even before the great achievements of modern technology there were in history periods when man's technical ability had dramatic consequences, both negative and positive. Just think of the exchange of infectious diseases and the introduction of new vegetables that took place in the seventeenth century between Europe and America because well-built caravels had allowed Columbus to cross the Atlantic.3 In that century what we consider today an obsolete technology was sufficient to cause planetary changes which natural barriers had prevented for tens of thousand of years.
Sails could divert asteroids and comets targeting the Earth, if impact-warning times are measured in decades. During the diversion process, space miners could also transfer valuable resources from these errant objects to space fabrication facilities close to the Earth using solar-sail space clippers. Some of these freighters will be large enough to be viewed easily through small, terrestrial telescopes. The exploits of these sailing ships of the cosmos will inspire generations of future space pioneers.
Arriving on motorcycles, Uzmoriye villagers purloined the cosmonaut's radio and inflatable rubber dinghy and buried it for safekeeping. The dinghy was a genuine gift for the village fishermen it literally fell down from the sky, Komsomolskaya Pravda reported. But then the KGB appeared on the scene and threatened to arrest the entire community if the equipment was not returned. Despite protests from the villagers that the dinghy was torn, the KGB captain put it in his car anyway and drove off.
A receiver-only AIS on your boat will allow you to monitor commercial shipping as an aid to making collision avoidance decisions. Because of some unreliability of data, especially heading, it must not be taken as an absolute indication of the situation, but in conjunction with radar, it is an exceptionally good situational awareness tool.
To impregnate the matting, a special roller with steel washers (discs) is used. This enables large pieces to be made quickly. Smaller intricate pieces are impregnated using ordinary paint brushes. Bought in bulk from boatyards, glass fibre matting and resin is reasonably cheap. For boat-building a mould is usually hired and later returned after making the components. However, I knew of no one hiring out
The Palaemon was undergoing modifications back at Huntsville in early June when the lock at Wheeler Dam, Tennessee, collapsed, stranding the barge upriver. Test Division and LOD personnel moved quickly to secure a reserve barge from the Navy's mothballed fleet at Green Cove Springs, Florida. Although there was not enough time to construct a cover for the second barge, the Avondale Shipyards at Harvey, Louisiana, made emergency modifications. Concurrently, the Tennessee Valley Authority enlisted the Corps of Engineers to build a bypass road and dock at Wheeler Dam. The Navy had identified its drab barge by a number, YFNB33. NASA rechristened the vessel Compromise, in hopes it would prove a workable one.19
The position given by your position lines is correct in relation to the land, though it may not tally with the latitudes and longitudes shown on your chart - This is important if your charts have large errors, as some do. If your chartplotter shows that your boat is travelling merrily over the land, but your eyes show you to be safely floating on the water, which are you going to believe Just have a look at the trace from this chartplotter.
The principal reason for using tidal height data is to check if the water is deep enough for your boat or that there's sufficient clearance to pass under a bridge or cable. You can use 'electronic' tidal curves if you have them - that's the easiest way - or you'll need to do it all on paper. Add to this the draft of your boat and the safety allowance you would like under your keel, what the French call the 'navigator's foot' (pied de pilote), and that's it That's the minimum depth in which to anchor.
Radar can allow us to measure both distance and bearing from a geographical position. Bearing is the least accurate and should not be relied on unless you have nothing better. Range (distance) is much more accurate. A distance from your boat to a feature as measured by radar will provide a curved position line, so you will need a pair of compasses to draw this on your chart.
Columbus struck trouble in the Caribbean in 1503 when, having already needed to abandon two ships, his last pair of caravels also became riddled with marine worms. He was forced to lie up on the northern shore ofJamaica, at a small cove named Santa Gloria (now Saint Ann's Bay).
In a very narrow channel, the buoys, or especially any beacons, may be in water too shallow for your boat at low water, so don't get too close to them. You have to balance this with the requirement to keep as far to the starboard of the channel as safely possible (Colregs Rule 9a)
Spurred on by the British experience in India, artillerist Sir William Congreve promoted the rocket as a weapon during the early nineteenth century. Congreve developed a wide variety of military rockets, ranging in size from a mass of about 150 kilograms down to 8-kilogram devices. There were two basic types of assault rockets the shrapnel (case-shot) rocket and the incendiary rocket. The British often employed the shrapnel rocket as a substitute for artillery. When it flew over enemy troops, its exploding warhead showered the battlefield with rifle balls and sharp pieces of metal. The warhead of the incendiary rocket was filled with sticky, flammable materials that quickly started fires when it impacted in an enemy city or in the rigging of an enemy sailing ship. The British used both types effectively during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812.
In early 1610, while sitting at his outside worktable in the evening, Galileo did something far more intriguing and prophetic with his telescope than simply taking another look at a distant church spire or sailing ship. He tilted one of his many lookers skyward and pulled up a chair for a more comfortable view. Staring into space, Galileo moved the cylinder around until he began spotting distant objects in the solar system. Stunned by the unexpected density of stars and planets, Galileo recorded the first fundamental discoveries about the solar system that could not be noted with the naked eye. Pointing the looker at the moon, he was dumbfounded to discover its surface texture
In these, having selected the day in question, you only need to scroll the curser along the 'time line' of the curve for the predicted tidal height to be displayed. Many can be programmed with the draft of your boat to give an instant reading of the clearance under your keel. You will need to consult your instruction book to see how to do this with any particular system.
Modeling temperature anisotropies in the equilibrium distribution function is comparably simple. One uses an anisotropic Maxwellian distribution as the one given in Eq. (I.6.37) of our companion book, Basic Space Plasma Physics. For loss cone distributions one takes either the Dory-Guest-Harris form of Eq. (I.6.40) or the partially-filled loss cone distribution of Eq. (I.6.41), again given in our companion book. The former is, however, much more difficult to treat. We will therefore exclusively use the latter
Let us now stop for a while and make a proper definition. Call a system where the law of inertia holds an inertial system or inertial reference frame. Then you can say that your ship represents an inertial system. So does the background of distant stars relative to which the ship is resting. Suppose now that you fall asleep, and during your sleep the engines are turned on. The spaceship is propelled up to a certain velocity, after which the engines are turned off again. You are still asleep, but the ship is now in a totally different state of motion. It has acquired a velocity relative to the background of stars, and it keeps on coasting with this velocity due to inertia. The magnitude of this velocity may be arbitrary. But even if it is nearly as large as that of light, it will not by itself affect in any way the course of events in the ship. After you have woken up and checked if everything is functioning properly, you don't find anytfiing unusual. All your tests give the same...
In the days of sailing ships, healthy young sailors would occasionally throw themselves from the boat and drown, overcome by a fascination with the deep, seemingly endless sea. This often-reported syndrome, labeled the call of the abyss, seems to have a modern-day equivalent in spaceflight. Just as psychologists describe some people who are compelled to stand on the edge of precipices or tall bridges staring into the abyss and then jumping, more than one astronaut has expressed the same fascination by the free-falling view of space afforded by space walks.
In 1565, Brahe left Leipzig for Denmark, which was currently at war with Sweden. At this time, his uncle Jorgen, a vice admiral, was in Copenhagen with his fleet when King Fredrik II fell from his own boat into the waters surrounding the royal castle. While trying to rescue the king, Jorgen fell in after him and died a short while later from pneumonia contracted from the ordeal.
Because of the influence of the boat and its equipment, the compass rarely points at the magnetic pole, this error being called deviation. Deviation is specific to your boat, changes according to the heading (and heel) of your boat, and must be reassessed annually as it will change with time and any additional equipment fitted. Compass correction is dealt with in a later chapter.
Another historic example is that of the rats that commonly lived on the old sailing ships. When these ships visited deserted islands to look for water and food, the rats sometimes managed to leave the vessel. Unable to protect themselves from the suddenly appearing strangers, flora and fauna on many formerly pristine islands was totally ruined. The death of many Native Americans due to diseases brought to America by European explorers and conquerors is another lesson from history.
The rings of Uranus are much different than those of Saturn they more resemble the faint rings around Jupiter. The albedo (proportion of light reflected) of the rings is only about 1 percent, similar to that of charcoal. If you were to visit the Uranian system in a space ship, you would have a hard time seeing the rings even if you passed right through their plane. Only if you actually struck one would you notice it easily this would not be likely because the rings are exceedingly narrow. However, the rings consist of good-sized rocks, generally on the order of 70 centimeters (28 inches) or larger in diameter. You would not want to navigate your ship through them.
Sound travels large distances in water. Sound-based underwater communication systems were used as early as the 19th century when lightships equipped with underwater bells acted as navigation aids. The ringing sound was detected in passing ships using stethoscopes. These were the forerunners of today's passive sonar systems.
Once the spacecraft arrives near its target, we can also use the background stars on the pictures it sends to determine its position and velocity. It works similarly to how, on the old sailing ships, people determined their position by celestial observation. This so-called optical navigation can even give a more precise analysis of the spacecraft's trajectory than ranging and the Doppler effect alone.
Named in honor of Georgij Sergeevich Migirenko (1916- ), academician and professor at the Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, known for his work in applied and theoretical mechanics, hydrodynamics, mathematics and ship-building. In recent years he has worked on design problems of ecology-safe machines and transport for northern regions. Migirenko also takes an active
He imagined being in the windowless cabin of a sailing ship with only some birds and a few fish in a bowl for company. If the ship were in calm waters it would be impossible to tell, said Galileo, whether the ship was at rest or, in the absence of any swaying or pitching, moving along with an even speed. This principle of relativity is enshrined in Newton's formulation of physics. But it's important to understand exactly what Newton believed on this issue. He was firmly convinced that objects can have absolute velocities-that some things really are at rest while others really are in motion. However, he was also adamant that there was no way to measure these absolutes. The best an observation can do is tell you the velocity of something relative to your own velocity, or a position relative to your own position. All the laws of mechanics, he argued, work identically, no matter how you're moving. It's a claim that seems to stand up well in everyday...
Some 400 years ago, the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler noted that the tails of comets are swept away by some mysterious breeze from the Sun. He imagined that it might be possible to use this to propel spaceships, the way sailing ships on the ocean are moved by the wind. Hopefully, demonstrators such as Cosmos 1 and the ongoing development of solar sail and inflatable technology will make it possible to launch real, operational solar sail probes sometime in the not too distant future. It is an elegant way of exploring space, reminiscent of the sailing ship expeditions of discovery in our past.
Named for a city in eastern Ehime prefecture, famous for the shipbuilding and textile industries, especially the production of towels. Imabari is the terminal city on the Shikoku see planet (4223) Island side of the Nishiseto Expressway (Shimanami Kaido) see planet (9235) and expects to welcome many visitors after this road opens on 1999 May 1. (M 34630)
We can understand how electromagnetic radiation is transmitted through space if we appreciate that it involves waves. What is a wave The first image that probably jumps to mind is that of ocean waves. And ocean waves do have some aspects in common with the kind of waves that we use to describe electromagnetic radiation. One way to think of a wave is that it is a way for energy to be transmitted from one place to another without any physical matter being moved from place to place. Or you may think of a wave as a disturbance that carries energy and that occurs in a distinctive and repeating pattern. A row boat out in the ocean will move up and down in a regular way as waves pass it. The waves do transmit energy to the shore (think of beach erosion), but the row boat will stay put. That regular up-and-down motion that the rowboat experiences is called harmonic motion. But there are two important differences with electromagnetic radiation The sources of waves are things on atomic scales...
This was the time of the Revolutionary War, and the track lay within enemy (i.e., British) territory. Undeterred, Williams made his calculations, studied his maps, and chose the western part of Penobscot Bay in Maine as a suitable observation point. This choice was based largely on the need to bring in a large sailing ship carrying the heavy equipment required for the eclipse observations the telescopes, clocks, and so on. This decided, Williams prevailed upon John Hancock, the first signatory to the Declaration of Independence and in 1780 the Speaker of the Continental Congress, to write to the commander of the British forces. Though we are political enemies, yet with regard to Science it is presumable we shall not dissent from the practice of all civilized people in promoting it, wrote Hancock. After such sweet-talking, safe passage was granted to the party.
What he saw were mirages of sailing ships, and of the coast of France. Although he used a telescope with a magnification of 30 to 40 times, he noted that the multiple images of the ships were visible to the naked eye. William Scoresby, a pioneer of Arctic exploration, saw similar mirages though a telescope when he was sailing in the icy sea east of Greenland,
Most nest on land and fly out in the morning to their fishing grounds and fly home at the end of the working day. Their flight paths are a good indication of where land lies. Flocks of birds feeding at sea are probably a sign that land is within a maximum of 50 nautical miles or a fishing boat within 50 metres.
Wilkins also speculated about the possibility of trade with the inhabitants of the Moon, whom he called Selenites. He admitted that he could not be sure that Selenites existed, but he thought they should, even though nobody had seen them. In the Discovery and Discourse books, he developed ideas about a flying chariot that could make the journey to the Moon, based on a sailing ship, a powerful spring, a clockwork gear train and a set of wings covered in feathers. He progressed these ideas in his third book called Mathematical Magic, which also described wind cars, guns that have multiple shots and other ingenious devices. Although some of these sounded fantastic, his books had a tremendous influence to many of the men of the early English Royal Society in the mid-17th century. At the end of the book he states
5 The sail on a typical interplanetary sailing ship will be on the order of one square kilometer or larger in size. Solar sails can be made from very thin (two to four microns) sheets of aluminum. Because aluminum and other construction materials are present on the Moon, all of the components of solar sailing cargo ships can be manufactured on the Moon and launched by mass driver into space for final assembly.6 A fleet of solar sailing ships
Thus we find that Peter the Great was one of his most ardent admirers. He consulted the astronomer on matters connected with shipbuilding, and invited him to his own table. But Halley possessed nobler qualifications than the capacity of pleasing Princes. He was able to excite and to retain the love and admiration of his equals. This was due to the warmth of his attachments, the unselfishness of his devotion to his friends, and to a vein of gaiety and good-humour which pervaded all his conversation.
Many centuries after Hero, engineers realized that the vented steam could be impacted against the blades of a turbine, and so the steamboat was born, in which the spinning turbine was itself attached to a paddlewheel. These water craft successfully competed with and ultimately replaced sailing ships. In the nineteenth century, the spinning turbine was attached to a wheel axle, miles of track were laid and the first coal-fueled locomotives began to chug across the landscape. Today, a new type of steamship is being considered. This one uses a very different type of steam and will travel between planets, not just across a continent. It is called a solar-thermal rocket.
I've been using a personal computer (PC) for some navigation activities on my boat since about 1999. It isn't essential by any means, but it's very useful and I enjoy using it. Unless you want to make use of the three-dimensional (3D) capabilities of some chart-plotting software, a powerful PC is not required. My boat PC runs Windows 98 and has a 475 megahertz CPU and only 64 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). It does an excellent job, but wouldn't run the latest version of my software, which does need more computing power, but a P4 processor and 256 megabytes of RAM should be fine. Check with the software vendor. If you really need to use the fantastic 3D capabilities, then a high-spec machine with a separate graphics card is essential.
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