Easy Ways to Control Territorial Cat Spraying
These words of T S Eliot describe only a fraction of the population of domestic cats. The coats of Felis catus can have a vast range of colours and patterns. Although the genetic mutations responsible have arisen naturally, many types survive only because cat breeders have actively favoured animals with pretty or unusual appearances. In the wild, natural selection would have eliminated new types of cat that were unable to obtain sufficient food and mates. Skin and fur colours are due to melanins, which are pigments produced in skin cells known as melanocytes. The dark colours are produced by eumelanin, whereas phaenomelanin is responsible for the orange colour described by breeders as red. White fur is free of melanins, owing to the action of genes that hinder the mi In the cells of a cat there are nineteen pairs of chromosomes, four pairs fewer than in a human cell. The cells for reproduction contain nineteen unpaired chromosomes, so that the fusion of spermatozoon with ovum produces...
As a planetary, the Cats Eye Nebula is a small but very striking object with intensified viewing it is particularly so, both in brightness and the complexity of structure it begins to let us see (Figure 7.47). It has some unusual features projections spinning out of two sides seem to hint at its having a twisted or helical structure, which is confirmed by observatory images. With or without narrowband filters, it is an easy object in the amateur's telescope, with very high surface brightness, although nothing of its structure and the central star
The desert can be a challenging place to live. Animals' ability to move about gives them a distinct advantage over plants, as they can seek out new sources of food, and relocate to more comfortable quarters during times of harsh weather and extreme temperatures. Migration, whether horizontal (such as the flight paths of birds and butterflies) or vertical (going from desert floor to mountain top) is a device that many desert animals employ to make survival easier. Some of the animals that move up and down Kitt Peak are large cats. Mountain lions, also called puma, cougar, and catamount, are rarely seen by people. They are identified by their yellowish to tawny color (no spots), and long tail with black tip. Mountain lions are solitary and territorial, but, unlike most cats, they can be active during the daytime in undisturbed surroundings. Although most prefer deer as a food source, the cats will eat also coyotes, mice, raccoons, birds, and grasshoppers. The scream of the mountain...
Another Schmidt Cassegrain advantage for visual workers is the comfort inherent in CATs. An SCT allows its user to observe anything in the sky while comfortably seated. A big Dobsonian telescope can deliver a lot of that prized light, sure, but to see anything, the observer will often be swaying at the top of the tall ladder required to reach the eyepiece observing position of a large scope. A DSO may be brighter in the Dobsonian, but if it can be viewed in comfort while seated, almost as much or more may be seen in an SCT with a considerably smaller aperture. Nearly all Schmidt Cassegrains can track stars and other objects across the sky via built-in motor drives, allowing an observer to sit and stare at a galaxy for as long as desired, until the object sets or the Sun rises, anyway. Most Dobsonians lack any kind of motor system to make up for Earth's rotation. Dob users must continually nudge the scope along to follow objects, which can be distracting. Push a button to find an...
We may scorn superstitions such as eclipses, but few people are not afflicted by some irrational belief. The atheist may gesture at religion as a case in point. A baseball player may always put on his left sock first, or insist on being the last out of the tunnel onto the diamond. Professors of logic may avoid walking under ladders or look askance at black cats. Recognizing that superstitions exist can lead to personal advantages if you must enter lotteries, choose among your numbers 13 and multiples thereof, because relatively few others will do so, and so you would not have to split any prize you won.
The Maksutov Cassegrain telescope, the MCT or Mak, is without doubt the non-SCT CAT most beloved of amateurs. The SCT and MCT are such similar scopes that beginners often have a hard time telling one breed of CAT from the other. The principal difference, visible in Plate 12, is the MCT's corrector. Unlike the thin, complex-curved Schmidt Cassegrain lens, the Mak has a corrector plate that is thicker, deeper, and simpler. It is often called a salad bowl corrector because of its appearance. While it looks different, the Mak corrector's function is the same as that of the SCT corrector remove spherical aberration. One other striking difference between these two types of CATs is that the MCT often does not have a separate secondary mirror. In Gregory design MCTs, the secondary is a silvered (aluminized) spot on the inside surface of the corrector plate.
The top-of-the-line 8-inch SCT is the best of the best for mass-produced Schmidt Cassegrains, and it is where Meade's and Celestron's offerings diverge. At one time, Meade was saying its top scopes, the LX200-ACF and LX400-ACF, were not really SCTs at all, but CATs of an advanced Ritchey Chr tien design. Most optically knowledgeable amateurs called the ACF telescopes optimized aplantic SCTs instead, and in a recent settlement between Meade and makers of true Ritchey-Chr tien telescopes, Meade has agreed not to refer to its telescopes as Ritcheys any more.
For Meade fanciers, this is almost the end of the rainbow. Like the 10-inch LX400, the 12-, 14-, and 16-inch models boast features that make them some of the most advanced CATs on the planet. Not many custom observatory scopes are as loaded with advanced computer frippery as the LX400 SCTs. What the larger LX400s bring to the party is serious aperture in addition to the computer gee-whizzery. But, they are heavy. For someone living in a city and unable to build a permanent observatory, portability is a must, and that is something the big LX400-ACFs definitely do not offer. In the discussion of the 10-inch scope, we mentioned it looked like a normal 12-inch. The real 12-inch is even bigger, the 14-inch is enormous, and the 16-inch well, you get the idea. The 12-inch requires a lift of 96 pounds onto the tripod. The 14 comes in at 121 pounds. As for the 16-inch, try 250 back-breaking pounds. Making that even worse is the fact that many LX400 users are focused on imaging. To do serious...
Just as there are larger than 8-inch SCTs, there are smaller ones. At this time, purchasing a small SCT means buying a Celestron. Meade produced a 4-inch model for many years, the 2045, but that scope was discontinued over a decade ago when the company decided to use the Maksutov Cassegrain design for its smaller CATs. How good is a small SCT anyway These are definitely kittens compared to big jungle CATs, like the C14 or Meade 16, but for an apartment dweller, a physically challenged person, or just someone who wants a telescope that can be set up and taken down at a moment's notice, it is hard to beat the portability combined with useful aperture found in the wee ones.
The science of the Middle Ages (scholasticism), was concerned more with thinking and concepts than it was with the physical world. Aristotle had the last word there. In their attempt to understand, people were assisted by logic, also founded by Aristotle. For example, a central question of the time was, whether classes of things, such as cats or stars, are in themselves real things or mere names invented by the human mind (leading to the heated controversy between realists and nominalists ).
I have test driven a few CAT GEM mount combos in this guide, but remember that it is not mandatory to settle for one of these packages. Meade and Celestron also sell their CATs as bare OTAs, and most of the other makers' scopes reviewed in this chapter are also available without mounts. Discriminating CAT fanciers can pick a combination of OTA and GEM that suits particular needs and goals. Often, beginners shy away from assembling OTA mount combinations themselves, but doing so often results in a better telescope. Putting together a telescope from an OTA GEM combo usually means paying more, but the results yielded by high-quality third-party GEMs may more than justify the extra expenditure. One thing is certain There is no shortage of excellent German mounts in all price ranges.
The foregoing refinement of the original anthropic principle, represented by Eq. (19.28), should be good enough for a wide range of applications. However, for the purpose of comparing observers of very different kinds (for which the qualification anthropic might not be so appropriate), such as extraterrestrials and cats, not to mention babies in our own species, the plausibility of Eq. (19.29) is much less obvious.
At the end of this wonderful first light night, once you've had a surfeit of the sky's wonders, disassemble the CAT by reversing the scope set-up procedure. Start by powering down the telescope and detaching the power cable, hand controller, and any accessories that are normally removed for storage. Take a look at the corrector before putting the dust cover back on. If there's any evidence of dew, don't cover it or put the OTA in its case. Either dry the lens off with a dew zapper gun or allow it to dry naturally indoors uncovered. Once the scope is inside, don't just leave it all by its lonesome in a corner till the next observing run, either. Although today's SCTs and other CATs are remarkably trouble-free, they do require a little routine maintenance and TLC, which is the subject of the next chapter.
Some nocturnal mammals make use of multiple-layer mirrors for enhancing vision at low light intensities. Cats have a mirror, the tapetum, immediately behind the retina. Any light passing through the retina without absorption gets a second chance after being reflected. The reflective stacks in the eyes of a cat exploit the same physical principle as fish scales, but with different materials.
For the laboratory method,1 the apertures are in the form of slits shaped like cats' eyes, at a fixed separation. They can be made simply by cutting three pieces of brass shim and glueing them together. The slits and the layout of the equipment are illustrated in figure 24.32.
This remarkable fact, often taken for granted by scientists, cannot be explained by anthropic multiverse reasoning. It is perfectly possible for there to exist a universe that permits the existence of observers who nevertheless do not, or cannot, make much sense of nature. Thus cats and dogs surely qualify as observers, but are not, like humans, privy to the deep mathematical rules on which the Universe runs. Moreover, in a general multiverse scenario, the vast majority of universes that permit the existence of observers with the same intellectual prowess as humans will not be comprehensible to those observers. For example, there are many ways that the laws of physics we observe could be more complex without threatening the existence of biology non-computability of the laws, forces varying with time in a complicated way that leaves chemistry largely unaffected, legions of additional weak forces that do not substantially affect the formation of galaxies, stars and planets,...
Today, object finding usually consists of nothing more than pushing a couple of buttons. But what is there to find Which objects are worthy of attention The sky is filled with beautiful deep sky wonders, but the Messier list is the time-honored place for deep sky explorers to start. These 110 objects, discovered by Charles Messier and others in the eighteenth century, are a sampling of the best and the brightest. Once the Messier list has been conquered, most observers move on to the 8,000 objects of the New General Catalog. The NGC list of objects, originally published by John Dreyer in 1888, was partly based on work done by renowned amateur astronomer Sir William Herschel. The DSOs in the NGC range from Messier class in brightness and detail to ones that are challenges for the largest CATs. What can be expected of the various species of deep sky objects in either catalog What are the most visually stunning galaxies M51, the Whirlpool Galaxy (Plate 56), is the place to go to see...
Unfortunately for North American amateurs, none of the OMCs appear to be available from U.S. or Canadian dealers at this time. In this day of Internet commerce, there is probably a way to get an OMC nevertheless, a European or U.K. dealer who will sell one of these nice CATs over the Internet.
Many of these souls will lose their lives by being too concerned with health (anorexia, hypochondria), turning rapidly to vegetarian diets, thus upsetting their naturally weak digestive tracts. They must understand that cats and dogs were born with strong claws and long, sharp teeth to tear apart raw flesh as intended by nature, while cows, horses, lambs, etc. are herbivores and were designed by God with flat teeth and three stomachs to eat only salad. They are none of those. They are omnivorous and must eat meat as a vigilant balance for their sensitive metabolism. Some souls who are overwhelmed by Pluto are overly crazy for carbohydrates. They are also protein paranoid. Some starve themselves after 6 00 p.m. Others take their heart rates much too seriously, some have a penchant for pain, and more are victims of the fat-burning syndrome. Worst of all for women is the weight lifting dilemma. It is, genetically speaking, impossible for a woman to take on a man's physical power, and no...
The LX400 (Plate 20) does not come in an 8-inch version, so I have chosen to place the smallest model, the 10-inch, with the 8-inch SCTs rather than with the big CATs. That is because this is a remarkable scope in many ways, one that is worthy of consideration by anyone in the market for an SCT of any size, not just something for folks suffering from the dreaded aperture fever.
The business of the perfect interstellar cloud is to confiscate or at least filter the light of stars lying behind or even within it. Certain clouds referred to as bright nebulas are lit up from within. They are in the process of giving birth to a generation of stars, for like rats, cats and fish, stars are born in broods. Hence, the large, dusty and icy interstellar clouds are not only repositories for the ashes of defunct stars, but also for the material that will give body to new stars. Those stars currently forming, still buried deep within this cloudy placenta, can be observed in the radio, millimetre and infrared regions. Indeed, absorption by gas and dust is minimal at these wavelengths.
For many years, ever since Celestron discontinued its C16 in the early 1970s, the LX200 16-inch has been the king of the CATs. That has changed recently with the introduction of Meade's Max Mount 20-inch SCT, but the fork-mounted 16-inch LX200-ACF (Plate 23) is still a huge and impressive telescope. Think a C14 or Meade 14 is enormous You ain't seen nothin yet. Do I need to say this one belongs in an observatory Everything concerning the 14 is doubly true here when it comes to this telescope's portability or the lack thereof. The 16-inch fork OTA weighs in at 125 pounds, and the tripod is even heavier, at nearly 200. This CAT is, frankly, fairly painful for even two people to erect. Not that this is not done I've seen one person setting up a 16-inch at the Texas Star Party using an engine hoist with only a little help from passersby. But, as with the 14-inch, one man setup is not something most of us will be willing to attempt.
In my earlier book, Choosing and Using a Schmidt Cassegrain Telescope, this section was titled Photography. Oh, how things have changed over the last 8 years These days it is hard to find good film to use to photograph terrestrial objects, much less celestial ones. CATs are still taking pictures of the universe, but they are now doing it with sophisticated CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. The digital picture-taking revolution has hit amateur astronomy with a vengeance, and SCTs are at the forefront.
This is an accurate depiction of what is involved in setting up the average SCT. Remember, though once the CAT is assembled, it can do a whole lot more than any Dob. It is virtually a portable observatory. The average SCT does not dictate its owner's choice of vehicle, either. I have seen 14-inch CATs transported in subcompact autos including a tiny Geo Metro. A Dobsonian that size may demand an SUV or pickup truck.
The menagerie of animals (not to mention plants, fungi, and microorganisms) that have made orbital and suborbital trips includes rats, mice, frogs, turtles, crickets, sword-tail fish, rabbits, dogs, cats, and chimpanzees. Spaceflights involving animals began just after World War II and continue today with biological experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The first primates sent on rocket journeys above most of the atmosphere were the monkeys Albert 1 and Albert 2 aboard nosecones of captured German V-2 (see V weapons) rockets during American tests in the 1940s. They died, however, as did a monkey and several mice in 1951 when their parachute failed to open after an Aerobee launch. But on September20 of the same year, a monkey and 11 mice survived a trip aboard an Aerobee to become the first passengers to be recovered alive from an altitude of tens ofkilometers. On May 28, 1959, monkeys Able and Baker reached the edge of space and came back unharmed. From 1959 to 1961 a...
It was my thirtieth year to heaven Woke to my hearing from over the Alton road And the muddy pooled and the seagull Sprinkled valley The morning beckon With thunder growling and the cats and dogs of rain And the knock of hailstones on the steamy windows Myself to go out That second Into the noisiness of the still sleeping town.
DOA scopes are rare, but it does happen. Often, the unfortunates who receive these CATs are instructed by dealers (or the maker) to return them to Meade, Celestron, or whomever for repair, which often takes weeks. Insist on an immediate exchange from the dealer's or manufacturer's stock or a refund instead. If you brought a new television set home from a chain store and it was dead when you plugged it in, would you agree to ship it to Panasonic for repair Not likely
Did life need to be multicellular My perspective is warped, since I'm writing this book with fingers for typing, eyes for reading, and a rudimentary brain for musing. I like being multicellular, and I'm quite fond of people, cats, redwoods, sea turtles, and prickly pear cacti. From where I sit, it's all the freaky multicellulars that make the beauty of the world.
Prices for SCTs, MCTs, and, in fact, all amateur telescopes are currently as low as they have ever been. A shrinking dollar coupled with an influx of CATs from the East has seen to that. Still, for some novices and young people the 1,500 to 2,000 that a go-to 8-inch SCT commands can be prohibitive. That does not mean newcomers should have to give up on CAT ownership, however. Nothing says a new telescope must be new. Is it safe to buy a used telescope from an individual through the mail or over the Internet It may be. One way to eliminate a lot of potential lemons is to refuse to consider buying any Meade or Celestron SCT made from about 1987 to 1990. These Halley scopes were made at a time when both companies were wearing out their equipment and their workforces to produce as many scopes as possible to satisfy the comet craze. Halley-era CATs can be okay, but be wary of buying one you could not try first. What is the secret to getting a good used telescope Education The best defense...
In Cheshire, cats tend to fade in and out of view at least according to Lewis Carroll. Recently, astronomers working in that English county discovered that galaxies can similarly hide from sight. In the case of VIRGOHI21, an invisible galaxy detected at the Jodrell Bank Observatory in Macclesfield, Cheshire, only a grin of radio waves reveals its stealthy presence.
SCT diagonals are made expressly for our CATs, and as shown in Plate 41, incorporate an integral threaded ring that allows them to screw directly onto the scope's rear port (or a reducer corrector). The other type, the refractor style, looks just like an oversize 1.25-inch diagonal. It has a plain barrel that is designed to be inserted into a refractor's focuser. Since there is no threaded ring and a 2-inch barrel will not fit into a standard visual back, another item is needed before a refractor diagonal can be used with most SCTs (Meade Microfocuser-equipped SCTs accept 2-inch refractor diagonals directly), an inexpensive accessory called a 2-inch adapter or, interchangeably, a 2-inch visual back. Whatever it is called, this item is nothing more than a threaded tube that can be screwed onto the rear port and into which 2-inch devices can be inserted. One also features a setscrew or compression ring to hold the diagonal or other item in place. If possible, choose a model with a...
Ubasti, also called Bastet or Bast, was an ancient Egyptian goddess worshipped in the form of a cat. Originally a goddess of the home, in the New Kingdom Ubasti was equated with the lioness war goddess. This name is being dedicated to observatory cats throughout the world. (M 19336)
The middle of the day is hot and still. There is no breeze, no benevolent cloud, and no change in the forecast. The air is full of buzzing cicadas, while on shaded, cool concrete porches dogs and cats sleep heavily, oblivious to passersby foolish enough to be out in the heat.
Sometimes, it would be nice to be able to loosen a go-to telescope's locks and move it by hand. It is a lot quicker to move a scope from one side of the sky to the other by hand than with the scope's motors. Unfortunately, all currently made go-to CATs lose alignment when they are moved by hand (the optical encoders that determine the telescope's position are part of the motor assemblies). If a motor is not turning, the computer does not know the telescope is moving. The only way to move a go-to scope manually without losing alignment is to use the directional buttons on the HC. That is no faster than a go-to but will allow finding objects the old-fashioned way, by star hopping.
Furthermore, private enterprise is trying to promote space enterprise. In 1997, the Cheap Access to Space prize was announced. It is funded by the Foundation for International Non-Govermental Development of Space (FINDS) and managed by the Space Frontier Foundation (SFF). The CATS prize of 250,000 will go to the first private team that launches a 2-kilogram payload to an altitude of 200 km or greater. SFF also holds annual conferences in Los Angeles for entrepreneurs, investors, media producers, and reporters (www.space-frontier.org EVENTS). But it was the X-Prize, created by Dr. Peter Diamandis, co-founder of the International Space University, that really provided space entreprepreneurs with a serious financial incentive. Winning that 10 million prize with the SpaceShipOne design enabled Burt Rutan to fill Sir Richard Branson's order for five more spaceplanes required by his Virgin Galactic company. The latter seeks to make space tourism affordable before 2010 their 200,000...
Dropped their sails on its shores in 1507. Most of the big mammals of America became extinct some eleven thousand years ago, around the time ancestors of the native Americans crossed the Bering Strait. At Hawaii various birds disappeared when Polynesians discovered the island, 1500 years ago. Flightless birds were eaten to extinction by the Maoris of New Zealand. Species other than homo sapiens have shown similar behaviour. European cats and foxes imported to Australia have eaten the larger part of the small marsupials. Their decline is no threat to the predators themselves, since they change prey easily. Humans too are very flexible.
Any CAT can be used for planetary imaging, but some CATs are more equal than others. The most critical requirement Quality optics, but most CATs fulfill that these days. Almost as important is focal length. A detailed planetary image requires a lot. It's possible to extend the focal length of any telescope by the use of a Barlow lens, but it's usually best to start out with a slow scope to begin with. A telescope that brings a lot of millimeters to the table is the Maksutov Cassegrain, and it can blow other designs out of the water on the Solar System. Its only failing Aperture. In the interest of sharp images, it's desirable to keep webcam frame exposures as short as possible. That's no problem for a 6-inch Maksutov on the Moon or Jupiter, but it can be a problem on Saturn, or when very large image scales on any planet are desired.
One other desirable accessory is an Infrared (IR) blocking filter Webcam chips are very sensitive to IR, and unless it's kept out the color balance of the camera will be badly skewed into the red. It's possible to fix the color of a strongly pink Jupiter or Saturn in post-processing, but even then color will usually be better in filtered shots than in unfiltered ones. An IR filter can improve sharpness in refractors (which may not be color corrected for IR), but CATs are not affected by this problem. Some webcams contain built-in IR filters, but an add-on like the Baader IR block filter (a 1.25-inch filter that screws onto the webcam adapter or Barlow) usually provides noticeably better results. If possible, a webcam's built-in IR filter usually a tiny film chip should be removed, since it will typically be of poor quality.
Dan, the architect, jokingly suggested that the concrete pier be wrapped with rope from floor to ceiling to make the world's largest cat scratching post. It would have been a novelty, and our cats would have loved it. However, if they decided to use the post while I was imaging, there would have been noticeable vibrations, so I laughingly rejected this suggestion.
Most people assume our tower was named after Francesco M. Grimaldi, who was an Italian physicist and astronomer, and author of a map of the Moon which was used by Riccioli as a basis for his nomenclature. However, that was not the reason the name Grimaldi was selected. Three weeks prior to the beginning of construction, one of our precious cats passed away, due to complications from feline HCM (hypertrophic cardio myopathy). His name was Grimaldi, and in his memory we named the tower after him. As a personal side note, our other two cats are named Copernicus and Tycho. All three of our cats were named after craters on the Moon. So, in a sense, our cat Grimaldi was named after Francesco M. Grimaldi. The finished observatory can be seen in Fig. 11.11.
The surest way to keep things interesting is to set and work at goals. The major reason CATs hit the closet is that the owners have decided that they've seen everything there is to see. Questioning these individuals will reveal they've actually hardly seen anything. Most have barely scratched the surface of the thousands of objects available to an 8-inch Schmidt Cassegrain. Everything turns out to be the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and a few of the brightest Messier objects. Plate 84. (Uncle Rod) Thirty-five years down the SCT road, I'm still in love with CATs. Credit Quote and image courtesy of Dorothy C. Mollise. Plate 84. (Uncle Rod) Thirty-five years down the SCT road, I'm still in love with CATs. Credit Quote and image courtesy of Dorothy C. Mollise.
You also have to factor in your own behavior. Some are just so hot, you can't get up the nerve to talk to or dance with them. But all this math is making you feel pretty confident, so we'll say you can deal with approaching three-quarters of them fn 0.75. Then we have to multiply again by the fraction who turn out to actually be interested in you. Because you are fascinating and fun to dance with, and because you can talk knowingly and winningly of probability (chicks and cats dig that), no one can refuse you, so fi 1. Assuming you have not forgotten any
The Mach1GTO ( 5,950) is A-P's light mount, but that is in relative terms. This GEM is more than able to accommodate CATs in the 8- to 12-inch aperture range, at least (Astro-Physics, unlike other GEM makers, tends to underrate the payload capacities of its mounts). One thing that is surprising about the Mach1 is that it is able to handle telescopes as heavy as it is without becoming heavy itself. The mount head is a positively puny sounding 28 pounds. When it comes to electronics, the Mach1, like other A-Ps, tends to take the tried-and-true rather than innovative route. The GEM is driven by heavy-duty servo motors under the direction of a computer HC. The hand control is nothing fancy, containing 17,000 objects and an array of features similar to those of other go-to HCs. Since the A-P go-to system speaks Meade LX200, it can be controlled by any PC program suitable for a Meade scope. The draw is not tons of features it is build quality and precision, both for the computer and the...
Celestron's and Meade's midgrade SCTs, the LX90 and the C8 CPC, are a definite step up from the basic telescopes. They are not much better accessorized than the low-cost models (Why is it that an imported Dobsonian is often equipped with two or three eyepieces, while much more expensive SCTs come with only one ), but the ills that plague the price-buster scopes have been at least partially cured. Most notably, the gear systems on these SCTs are much better they exhibit far less annoying backlash than the LXD75, C8-SGT, and especially the NexStar 8 SE. The midgrade mounts are also less shaky, and both brands are equipped with PEC to make imaging easier. All this goodness comes at a penalty, however. These telescopes are heavier, if still transportable by any healthy adult. They are also more expensive. At the midlevel, plan to pay about 2,000 for a scope. Still, this seems very reasonable considering the capabilities of these CATs. One of them could very well be the scope of a lifetime...
A few older telescopes, both Meade and Celestron, have a fourth screw in the center of the secondary mount. Don't touch it. In these CATs, the secondary mirror is attached to the mount via this central screw. Remove it, and the secondary drops onto the primary. Modern CATs use secondary backing plates with three threaded holes for the collimation screws and a central pivot or leaf spring the mirror rides on. The secondary will remain attached unless all three screws are removed. Actually, the Meade LX400 and some other recent Meade models use six screws rather than three or four. These are arranged in three pairs of outer and inner screws. The inner screws provide
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