E cos0 0o

which is the polar equation of a conic section. The constant e is the eccentricity, and the point of closest approach always occurs when 0 = 0O .If e = 0, the orbit

Hermann was a pupil of Jakob Bernoulli. His main work is his Phoronomia (1716), in which many of the problems from Books I and II of the Principia are treated. Hermann's approach was a sort of half-way house between the geometry of Newton and the fully fledged analytical mechanics that would later be created by Euler. A discussion of the interplay between calculus and geometry in Hermann's work is given in Guicciardini (1996) and Bernoulli's proof is discussed in Speiser (1996).

The key step is to note that, since h = r2d is a constant, d2r d dr . d _ _ _ _ _ Q_

0 0

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