be arranged in order to save these phenomena.

As to quite how the phenomena were to be saved within a Ptolemaic framework, he left no clue.

Galileo's discoveries with the telescope soon were confirmed by others, and he became arguably the most celebrated scientist in the whole of Europe. His revealing observations forced people completely to reassess the nature of the Universe and man's place within it. One person whose attitude changed was Galileo himself. Before 1610, he had kept his Copernican views suppressed

From the final (1611) edition of Clavius' Commentary on the 'Sphere' ofSacrobosco. Translation from Lattis (1994), p. 198.

(at least in public) but his telescopic observations began to change all that. He became Copernicus' most ardent supporter in Italy and, perhaps more significantly, also an extremely hostile (and eloquent) critic of the whole of Aristotelian physics, which he realized needed to be overthrown. Galileo, a devout Catholic, went to Rome in 1611 to argue for the Copernican theory but, although he did manage to convince people of the truth of the recent telescopic discoveries, he had less success persuading others to believe in his interpretation of the results.

Whereas his observations of Venus had demonstrated that the Ptolemaic model of the heavens could not be upheld, it did not distinguish between the heliocentric theory of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe's geoheliocentric scheme. The main reason for the invention of the Tychonic system was the reluctance to accept a moving Earth, but Galileo had no such reluctance; indeed, he thought he had a proof of the Earth's motion via the tides. He thus chose completely to ignore the Tychonic system and, instead, to contrast Copernicus' scheme with

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