reflection of sunlight onto the Moon by the Earth. This offended Aristotelians for whom the Earth could not shine like a planet. Galileo observed the Milky Way through his telescope and found that it was made up of many, many faint stars. In fact, he soon realized that wherever he looked in the heavens, he could see more stars with his telescope than without it.

He also observed that, through a telescope, stars and planets looked different - the planets looked like discs, but the stars remained as twinkling points of light. He realized that both planets and stars were much smaller than naked-eye observations suggested; indeed, the telescope allowed the first accu-

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