by Christiaan Huygens.

Cartesian physics - and in particular the treatment of gravitation - advanced to a new level with the work of Huygens, who incorporated a quantitative element into the theory. Crucial to his success was his correct appreciation of centrifugal force. Huygens' solution was first published in his great work on pendulum clocks, the Horologium Oscillatorium (1673), but in 1669 Huygens had sent his result in the form of an anagram to Henry Oldenburg, the secretary

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