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and Madame Nicole-Reine Lepaute, beginning in 1757.

At the outset, Clairaut believed that the only significant perturbations on the comet would be those due to close encounters with Jupiter, but he soon realized that the period of the comet was extremely sensitive to changes in speed near perihelion and, as a result, not only did the effects of Saturn on the comet have to be included, he also had to consider the effect of Jupiter and Saturn on the position of the Sun.

The calculations involved were horrendous, and many approximations had

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