that of Ptolemy.

One of the key figures who opposed Galileo was Cardinal Bellarmine, the chief theologian to the Roman Catholic Church and the man who had sent Giordano Bruno to the stake. He was the principal advocate for Pope Paul V, and his skills at arguing his case were respected highly. Bellarmine was sufficiently open-minded to accept that, if conclusive proof of the motion of the Earth were found, a reinterpretation of the Scriptures would be necessary, but he did not believe that any of Galileo's telescopic discoveries amounted to such a proof because the Tychonic system could explain them equally well, but with a stationary Earth.

In the battle with the theologians that followed Galileo's new discoveries,22 the debate concerned not only the Copernican system but also Galileo's scientific method. Galileo believed that mathematics was the language of nature and that problems should be formulated mathematically. The truth of the results obtained from such theoretical considerations could then be verified by experiment. The more tests they passed, the more confidence one could have

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