Figures

1.1 Stonehenge page 2

1.2 Ptolemaic system 3

1.3 Crab nebula 4

1.4 Brahe, Galileo, Kepler 6

1.5 Trifid nebula 12

1.6 Orion nebula 13

1.7 Pleiades 14

1.8 Ring nebula 15

1.9 Globular cluster M10 16

1.10 Andromeda nebula M31 17

1.11 Hubble redshift 18

2.1 Bands of the electromagnetic spectrum 26

2.2 Atmospheric absorption 30

3.1 Celestial sphere and the earth 36

3.2 Horizon coordinate system 38

3.3 Galaxy: bulge, corona, globular clusters, spiral arms 41

3.4 Galactic coordinates 41

3.5 Celestial sphere, equatorial and galactic coordinates 42

3.6 Discrete radio sources, 1420 MHz 43

3.7 Solid angle element 46

4.1 Star motions in horizon coordinate system 61

4.2 Trigonometric parallax 64

4.3 Stellar aberration 65

4.4 Earth precession 67

4.5 Solar eclipse, tracks of sun and moon 74

4.6 Sun in x rays and visible light during eclipse 78

5.1 Thin lens focusing 101

5.2 Telescope focusing systems 105

5.3 Tubular collimator and multiple pinhole mask 107

5.4 Galactic center in x rays, BeppoSAX WFC image 109

5.5 Telescope beam, resolution and FWHM 113

5.6 Fraunhofer diffraction 116

5.7 Diffraction by circular aperture, Airy disk 118

5.8 Adaptive optics, interference of wavefronts 120

5.9 Speckle interferometry imaging 123

5.10 Hartmann wavefront sensor 126

5.11 Adaptive optics system 127

5.12 Galactic center image using adaptive optics 128

6.1 Photometry and the photomultiplier tube 132

6.2 Proportional counter 134

6.3 Charge-coupled device (CCD) 139

6.4 CCD readout 141

6.5 EGRET gamma-ray experiment 146

6.6 BATSE gamma-ray burst experiment 150

6.7 Poisson distribution, three mean values 154

6.8 Poisson and normal distributions, m = 100 156

6.9 Least squares fits 167

6.10 Chi square tests 170

6.11 Chi square probabilities 171

7.1 Principle of interferometry 178

7.2 Two equatorial telescopes on spinning earth 180

7.3 Two telescopes at North Pole on spinning earth 184

7.4 Lines of position and source location 185

7.5 Electronic processing and all-sky lines of visibilty 186

7.6 Interference wave forms 190

7.7 Projected baseline b and tangent plane 193

7.8 "Shading" method for creating map 198

7.9 Very Large Array (VLA) and VLBA 210

7.10 Twin quasar 0957+561 210

7.11 Cygnus A with lobes, VLA image 211

7.12 Capella image with optical interferometry 213

8.1 Flux and luminosity from a point source 223

8.2 UBV transmission curves 227

8.3 Antenna beam, source element, spherical coordinates 236

8.4 Specific intensity, surface receiving flux 240

8.5 Surface brightness, radiation leaving a surface 242

8.6 Geometry, surface brightness = specific intensity 243

8.7 Specific intensity from shells at r and 2r 244

8.8 Specific intensity from element of transparent cloud 248

8.9 Emission from a column 249

9.1 Energy levels of two ionization states 264

9.2 Sizes and distances of astronomical objects 267

9.3 Moving cluster method 271

9.4 Upsilon, tau and radial velocity components of a star 275

9.5 Distance to H2O masers in Sgr B-2 278

9.6 Cepheid intensity variations 280

9.7 Luminosity function of globular clusters 287

9.8 Surface brightness fluctuations on a CCD chip 290

9.9 Distance ladder 293

10.1 Hydrogen atom, energy levels 305

10.2 Interstellar reddening by cloud and in galactic disk 307

10.3 Extinction vs. frequency plot 312

10.4 Dust-hydrogen correlation in Galaxy 313

10.5 Cross section for atom, attenuation in volume element 315

10.6 Cross section vs. frequency in matter, sketches 322

10.7 Effective photoelectric cross sections in ISM 325

10.8 Ultraviolet and x-ray survival distances in Galaxy 328

11.1 Sketches, emission lines, absorption line, continuum 334

11.2 Spectra of Crab nebula and pulsar 336

11.3 Exponential spectra, three plots 342

11.4 Theoretical spectrum, optically thin thermal plasma 344

11.5 X-ray spectra of Puppis A and Capella 345

11.6 Ideal and real radio spectra 346

11.7 Power-law spectrum, sketch 347

11.8 Blackbody spectra, linear and log-log plots 349

11.9 Cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum 352

11.10 Optical stellar spectra, Canopus and ^ Carinae 353

11.11 Origins of spectral lines, light bulb and 3 observers 356

11.12 Spinning star, origin of emission and absorption lines 357

11.13 Radio molecular spectra 360

11.14 Equivalent width and saturation, sketches 361

11.15 Line profiles, thermal and damping 363

11.16 Curve of growth 365

11.17 Radiative transfer, source, cloud and observer 366

11.18 Radiative transfer, intensity vs. optical depth 370

11.19 Line formation, optical depth and intensity vs. frequency 372

12.1 Solar neutrino spectrum 381

12.2 Cerenkov light directionality and "smoke ring" in water 386

12.3 Primary and secondary cosmic rays in atmosphere 391

12.4 Extensive air shower and detector array 393

12.5 Auger observatory for ultra high energy primaries 397

12.6 Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar orbital decay 401

12.7 Ring of test masses in gravitational waves, two polarizations 403

12.8 Close binary of two neutron stars, final chirp 405

12.9 Gravitational wave detectors, bar and interferometer 409

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment