Hz Hz

S = /I dû F = ¡I dû dv P = JI dû dv dA U = JI dû dv d A dt

a Definitions presume that area element traversed by flux is normal to the propagation direction as in Fig. 8.5.

420 Units, symbols, and values Table A5. Physical constants'1


Light speed in vacuum Permeability of vacuum (exact) Permittivity of vacuum Gravitation constant Planck constant


Electron charge Electron mass in eV (mec2/e) Proton mass

Neutron mass


Fine-structure constant

Bohr radius


Avogadro constant

Atomic mass constant m(12C)/12

Boltzmann constant

Molar gas constant

Stefan-Boltzmann constant


Electron volt

Standard atmos. pressure

Standard gravit. acceleration

Temperature and energy kT(eV)

Photon frequency and energy E (eV)

Photon energy and wavelength c = 2.997 924 58 x 108 ms-1 ß0 = 4^ x 10-7N A-2 eo = 1/^0c2 = 8.854 x 10 G = 6.673 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s h = 6.626069 x 10-34 J s e = 1.602 176 x 10-19 C me = 9.109 382 x 10-31 kg(«

= 938.272 MeV mn = 1.674 927 x 10-27 kg 939.565 MeV

12 s4 A2 m

0.5292 10-10

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