11.2 Plots of spectra 334 Energy and number spectra • Spectral reference band -

Frequency and wavelength - Frequency and energy • Spectral bin widths

11.3 Continuum spectra 339 Free-bound, bound-free and free-free transitions •

Optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung - Radiation from a hot plasma - Plasma parameters determined - Shocks in supernova remnants, stellar coronae, H II regions • Synchrotron radiation • Blackbody radiation - Spectrum - Radio spectra and antenna temperature - Cosmic microwave background - Stars

11.4 Spectral lines 354 Absorption and emission lines - Origin of spectral lines -

Stars and nebulae - Permitted and forbidden lines - Spectral lines at non-optical frequencies • Line strengths and shapes -Equivalent width - Damping and thermal profiles - Turbulent motions and collisional broadening - Saturation and the curve of growth

11.5 Formation of spectral lines (radiative transfer) 365 Radiative transfer equation (RTE) - Intensity differentials -

Intensity variation with optical depth • Local thermodynamic equilibrium • Solution of the RTE • Limiting cases - Summary

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