Introduction379

12.2 Neutrino observatories 379 Neutrinos from the sun • Homestake mine experiment -

Neutrino-chlorine conversions - Argon decay - Sweeping for argon atoms - Solar neutrino problem • Second generation experiments - Gallium detectors - Super-Kamiokande -Cerenkov radiation • Neutrino oscillations and more

12.3 Cosmic ray observatories 388 Primary and secondary fluxes - Storage in the Galaxy -

Nuclear component - Electromagnetic component - Muon component - Cosmic ray astronomy • Extensive air showers -Growth and decay - Cerenkov radiation and fluorescence -Detection of EAS - Fly's Eye - Auger project • Gamma-ray primaries - TeV and EeV astronomy

12.4 Gravitational-wave observatories 399 Orbiting neutron stars - Hulse-Taylor pulsar - Energy loss rate • Gravitational waves - Distortion of space - Quadrupole radiation • Merger of neutron-star binary - Variable quadrupole moment - Strain - Detection in Virgo cluster - Final chirp • Detectors - Resonant bars - Laser interferometers -Multiple antennas - Low frequency antenna in space

Credits, further reading, and references 415

Appendix - Units, symbols, and values 418

Index 422

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

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