This class, also called air-breathing engines, comprises devices which have a duct to confine the flow of air. They use oxygen from the air to burn fuel stored in the flight vehicle. The class includes turbojets, turbofans, ramjets, and pulsejets. This class of propulsion is mentioned primarily to provide a comparison with rocket propulsion and a background for combination rocket-duct engines, which are mentioned later. Several textbooks, such as Refs. 1-1 and 1-2, contain a discussion of duct jet propulsion fundamentals. Table 1-2 compares several performance characteristics of specific chemical rockets with those of typical turbojets and ramjets. A high specific impulse is directly related to a long flight range and thus indicates the superior range capability of air breather engines over chemical rockets at relatively low altitude. The uniqueness of the rocket, for example, high thrust to weight, high thrust to frontal
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