With proper precautions and equipment, all common propellants can be manufactured, handled, and fired safely. It is necessary to fully understand the hazards and the methods for preventing hazardous situations from arising. Each material has its own set of hazards; some of the more common ones are described briefly below and also in Refs. 12-4 and 12-5. Not all apply to each propellant.

Inadvertent Ignition

If a rocket motor is ignited and starts combustion when it is not expected to do so, the consequences can include very hot gases, local fires, or ignition of adjacent rocket motors. Unless the motor is constrained or fastened down, its thrust will suddenly accelerate it to unanticipated high velocities or erratic flight paths that can cause damage. Its exhaust cloud can be toxic and corrosive. Inadvertent ignition can be caused by these effects:

AP concentration, %
FIGURE 12-7. Calculated combustion products of composite propellant with varying amounts of AP or RDX. (Adapted from Chapter 1 of Ref. 12-2 with permission of the AIAA.)

Stray or induced currents activate the igniter.

Electrostatic discharge causes a spark or arc discharge.

Fires cause excessive heating of motor exterior, which can raise the propellant temperature above the ignition point.

Impact (bullet penetration, or dropping the motor onto a hard surface).

Energy absorption from prolonged mechanical vibration can cause the propellant to overheat.

An electromechanical system is usually provided that prevents stray currents from activating the igniter; it is called safe and arm system. It prevents ignition induced by currents in other wires of the vehicle, radar- or radio-frequency-induced currents, electromagnetic surges, or pulses from a nuclear bomb explosion. It prevents electric currents from reaching the igniter circuit during its

"unarmed" condition. When put into the "arm" position, it is ready to accept and transmit the start signal to the igniter.

Electrostatic discharges (ESD) can be caused by lightning, friction of insulating materials, or the moving separation of two insulators. The buildup of a high electrostatic potential of thousands of volts can, upon discharge, allow a rapid increase in electric current, which in turn can lead to arcing or exothermic reactions along the current's path. For this reason all propellants, liners, or insulators should have sufficient electric conductivity to prevent the buildup of an electrostatic charge. The inadvertent ignition of a Pershing ground-to-ground missile is believed to have been caused by electrostatic discharge while in the transporter-erector vehicle. ESD is a function of the materials, their surface and volume resistivities, dielectric constants, and the breakdown voltages.

Viscoelastic propellants are excellent absorbers of vibration energy and can become locally hot when oscillated for extensive periods at particular frequencies. This can happen in designs where a segment of the grain is not well supported and is free to vibrate at natural frequencies. A propellant can also be accidentally ignited by various other energy inputs, such as mechanical friction or vibration. Standard tests have been developed to measure the pro-pellant's resistance to these energy inputs.

Aging and Useful Life

This topic was discussed briefly in the section on Structural Design in the previous chapter. The aging of a propellant can be measured with test motors and propellant sample tests if the loading during the life of the motor can be correctly anticipated. It is then possible to estimate and predict the useful shelf or storage life of a rocket motor (see Refs. 12-5 and 12-6). When a reduction in physical properties, caused by estimated thermal or mechanical load cycles (cumulative damage), has reduced the safety margin on the stresses and/or strains to a danger point, the motor is no longer considered to be safe to ignite and operate. Once this age limit or its predicted, weakened condition is reached, the motor has a high probability of failure. It needs to be pulled from the ready inventory, and the old aged propellant needs to be removed and replaced with new, strong propellant.

The life of a particular motor depends on the particular propellant, the frequency and magnitude of imposed loads or strains, the design, and other factors. Typical life values range from 5 to 25 years. Shelf life can usually be increased by increasing the physical strength of the propellants (e.g., by increasing the amount of binder), selecting chemically compatible, stable ingredients with minimal long-term degradation, or by minimizing the vibration loads, temperature limits, or number of cycles (controlled storage and transport environment).

Case Overpressure and Failure

The motor case will break or explode if the chamber pressure exceeds the case's burst pressure. The release of high-pressure gas energy can cause an explosion; motor pieces could be thrown out into the adjacent area. The sudden depres-surization from chamber pressure to ambient pressure, which is usually below the deflagration limit, would normally cause a class 1.3 propellant to stop burning. Large pieces of unburned propellant can often be found after a violent case burst. This type of motor failure can be caused by one of the following phenomena:

1. The grain is overaged, porous, or severely cracked and/or has major unbonded areas due to severe accumulated damage.

2. There has been a significant chemical change in the propellant due to migration or slow, low-order chemical reactions. This can reduce the allowable physical properties, weakening the grain, so that it will crack or cause unfavorable increases in the burning rate. In some cases chemical reactions create gaseous products which create many small voids and raise the pressure in sealed stored motors.

3. The motor is not properly manufactured. Obviously, careful fabrication and inspection are necessary.

4. The motor has been damaged. For example, a nick or dent in the case caused by improper handling will reduce the case strength. This can be prevented by careful handling and repeated inspections.

5. An obstruction plugs the nozzle (e.g., a loose large piece of insulation) and causes a rapid increase in chamber pressure.

6. Moisture absorption can degrade the strength and strain capabilities by a factor of 3 to 10 in propellants that contain hygroscopic ingredients. Motors are usually sealed to prevent humid air access.

Detonation versus Deflagration. When burning rocket motor propellant is overpressurized, it can either deflagrate (or burn) or detonate (explode violently), as described in Table 12^4. In a detonation the chemical reaction energy of the whole grain can be released in a very short time (microseconds), and in effect it becomes an explosive bomb. This detonation condition can happen with some propellants and some ingredients (e..g, nitroglycerine or HMX, which are described later in this chapter). Detonations can be minimized or avoided by proper design, correct manufacture, and safe handling and operating procedures.

The same material may burn or detonate, depending on the chemical formulation, the type and intensity of the initiation, the degree of confinement, the physical propellant properties (such as density or porosity), and the geometric characteristics of the motor. It is possible for certain propellants to change suddenly from an orderly deflagration to a detonation. A simplified explanation of this transition starts with normal burning at rated chamber pressure;

TABLE 12-4. Comparison of Burning and Detonation

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