pressure container

the propellant

the hot gas then penetrates pores or small cracks in the unburned propellant, where the local confinement can cause the pressure to become very high locally, the combustion front speeds up to shock wave speed with a low-pressure differential, and it then accelerates further to a strong, fast, high-pressure shock wave, characteristic of detonations. The degree and rigidity of the geometric confinement and a scale factor (e.g., larger-diameter grain) influence the severity and occurrence of detonations.

Hazard Classification. Propellants that can experience a transition from deflagration to detonation are considered more hazardous and are usually designated as class 1.1-type propellants. Most propellants will burn, the case may burst if chamber pressure becomes too high, but the propellant will not detonate and are class 1.3 propellants. The required tests and rules for determining this hazard category are explained in Ref. 12-7. Propellant samples are subjected to various tests, including impact tests (dropped weight) and card gap tests (which determine the force needed to initiate a propellant detonation when a sample is subjected to a blast from a known booster explosive). If the case should burst violently with a class 1.3 propellant, much of the remaining unburnt propellant would be thrown out, but would then usually stop burning. With a class 1.1 propellant, a powerful detonation can sometimes ensue, which rapidly gasifies all the remaining propellant, and is much more powerful and destructive than the bursting of the case under high pressure. Unfortunately, the term "explosion" has been used to describe both a bursting of a case with its fragmentation of the motor and also the higher rate of energy release of a detonation, which leads to a very rapid and more energetic fragmentation of the motor.

The Department of Defense (DOD) classification of 1.1 or 1.3 determines the method of labeling and the cost of shipping rocket propellants, loaded military missiles, explosives, or ammunition; it also determines the required limits on the amount of that propellant stored or manufactured in any one site and the minimum separation distance of that site to the next building or site. The DOD system (Ref. 12-7) is the same as that used by the United Nations.

Insensitive Munitions

In military operations an accidental ignition and unplanned operation or an explosion of a rocket missile can cause severe damage to equipment and injure or kill personnel. This has to be avoided or minimized by making the motor designs and propellants insensitive to a variety of energy stimuli. The worst scenario is a detonation of the propellant, releasing the explosive energy of all of the propellant mass, and this scenario is to be avoided. The missiles and its motors must undergo a series of prescribed tests to determine their resistance to inadvertent ignition with the most likely energy inputs during a possible battle situation. Table 12-5 describes a series of tests called out in a military specification, which are detailed in Refs. 12-8 and 12-9. A threat hazard assessment must be made prior to the tests, to evaluate the logistic and operational threats during the missile's life cycle. The evaluation may cause some modifications to the test setups, changes in the passing criteria, or the skipping of some of these tests.

The missiles, together with their motors, are destroyed in these tests. If the motor should detonate (an unacceptable result), the motor has to be redesigned

TABLE 12-5. Testing for Insensitivity of Rockets and Missiles



Criteria for Passing

Fast cook off

Build a fire (of jet fuel or wood) underneath

No reaction more severe than

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