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Rocket Propulsion Systems in Titan Launch Vehicles

10,000

2 thrust chambers 430,000 Ibf thrust at SL

101,000 Ibf thrust in vacuum

SSPS with Aerojet liquid storable propellant engine AJ 10-118 K (9800 Ibf thrust)

2 units, each metal case 5i segments /, = 123 x 106 lbf-sec Same, 529,000 Ibf thrust (vacuum)

Same

United Technologies/ CSD, Interim Upper Stage (IUS) solid propellant rocket motor (see Table 11-3)

Same, but uprated to

550,000 Ibf thrust in a vacuum

Uprated to 106,000 Ibf thrust in vacuum

Centaur;

2 Pratt & Whitney RL 10A-3-3A rocket engines, 33,000 Ibf thrust, H2/02

12,700

12% more propellant, 3 segments /, = 179 x 106 lbf-sec Same

Same

Same

Source: Lockheed-Martin Astronautics, Aerojet Propulsion Company, and Pratt & Whitney Division of United Technologies Corp.

launch from the equator in a eastward direction will give the highest payload. For the same orbit altitude other trajectory inclinations have a lower payload. For the same inclination the payload decreases with orbit altitude, since more energy has to be expended to overcome gravitational attraction.

The Space Shuttle has its maximum payload when launched due east into an orbit with 28.5° inclination from Kennedy Space Flight Center in Florida, namely about 56,000 lb (or 25,455 kg) at a 100 nautical mile (185 km) orbit altitude. The payload decreases by about 100 lb (45.4 kg) for every nautical mile increase in altitude. If the inclination is 57°, the payload diminishes to about 42,000 lb (or 19,090 kg). If launched in a southerly direction from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the west coast in a 98° inclination into a circular, nearly polar orbit, the payload will be only about 30,600 lb or 13,909 kg.

The dramatic decrease of payload with circular orbits of increasing altitude and with different inclination is shown for the Pegasus, a relatively small, air-launched, space launch vehicle, in Fig. 4-16. The payload is a maximum when launching from the earth equator in the east direction, that is at 0° inclination.

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