to 13,000 m/sec, depending on the payload, vehicle design, and propellant. With two stages it can be between perhaps 12,000 and 22,000 m/sec.
Rotational maneuvers, described later, do not change the flight velocity and are not usually added to the mission velocity requirements. Also, maintaining a satellite in orbit against long-term perturbing forces (see prior section) is often not counted as part of the mission velocity. However, the designers need to provide additional propulsion capability and propellants for these purposes. These are often separate propulsion systems, called reaction control systems.
Typical vehicle velocities required for various interplanetary missions have been estimated as shown in Table 4-4. By starting interplanetary journeys from a space satellite station, a considerable saving in this vehicle velocity can be achieved, namely, the velocity necessary to achieve the earth-circling satellite orbit. As the space-flight objective becomes more ambitious, the mission velocity is increased. For a given single or multistage vehicle it is possible to increase the vehicle's terminal velocity, but usually only at the expense of payload. Table 4-5 shows some typical ranges of payload values for a given multistage vehicle as a percentage of a payload for a relatively simple earth orbit. Thus a vehicle capable of putting a substantial payload into a near-earth orbit can only land a very small fraction of this payload on the moon, since it has to have additional upper stages, which displace payload mass. Therefore, much larger vehicles are required for space flights with high mission velocities if compared to a vehicle of less mission velocity but identical payload. The values listed in Tables 4-4 and 4-5 are only approximate because they depend on specific vehicle design features, the propellants used, exact knowledge of the
TABLE 4-4. Vehicle Mission Velocities for Typical Interplanetary Missions
Approximate Ideal Velocity Actual Velocity (km/sec) (1000 m/sec)
Satellite orbit around earth
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