FIGURE 3-16. Flow conditions at a nozzle exit lip at high altitude, showing streamlines, boundary layer, velocity and temperature profiles.
boundary layer has a profound effect on the overall heat transfer to nozzle and chamber walls. It also has an effect on the rocket performance, particularly in applications with relatively long nozzles with high nozzle area ratios, where a relatively high proportion of the total mass flow (2 to 25%) can be in the lower-velocity region of the boundary layer. The high gradients in pressure, temperature, or density and the changes in local velocity (direction and magnitude) influence the boundary layer. Scaling laws for boundary layer phenomena have not been reliable.
Theoretical approaches to boundary layer performance effects can be found in Chapters 26 to 28 of Reference 3-1 and in Reference 1-1. A truly satisfactory theoretical analysis of boundary layers in rocket nozzles has not yet been developed. Fortunately, the overall effect of boundary layers on rocket performance has been small. For most rocket nozzles the loss seldom exceeds 1 % of specific impulse.
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