Nozzle Theory And Thermodynamic Relations

Thermodynamic relations of the processes inside a rocket nozzle and chamber furnish the mathematical tools needed to calculate the performance and determine several of the key design parameters of rocket propulsion systems. They are useful as a means of evaluating and comparing the performance of various rocket systems; they permit the prediction of the operating performance of any rocket unit that uses the thermodynamic expansion of a gas, and the determination of several necessary design parameters, such as nozzle size and generic shape, for any given performance requirement. This theory applies to chemical rocket propulsion systems (both liquid and solid propellant types), nuclear rockets, solar heated and resistance or arc heated electrical rocket systems, and to any propulsion system that uses the expansion of a gas as the propulsive mechanism for ejecting matter at high velocity.

These thermodynamic relations, which are fundamental and important in analysis and design of rocket units, are introduced and explained in this chapter. The utilization of these equations should give the reader a basic understanding of the thermodynamic processes involved in rocket gas behavior and expansion. A knowledge of elementary thermodynamics and fluid mechanics on the part of the reader is assumed (see Refs. 1-1, 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3). This chapter also addresses different nozzle configurations, non-optimum performance, energy losses, nozzle alignment, variable thrust and four different ways for establishing nozzle performance parameters.

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Project Management Made Easy

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