Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

Bump To Birth Summary


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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

The Movement For Birthing

More and more research is showing that having your baby naturally can help both you AND your child later in life, and cause a better pregnancy than one that is focused around drugs and doping the mother until she can't feel a thing. Penelope is a natural birth expert and knows exactly how to make sure that you have the pregnancy and birth that you actually deserve, instead of going through a lot of pain that you should not have to deal with. Her method makes birth much more manageable and even pleasurable for both you AND your baby. This online course goes into far more detail than the advice that too many courses offer; there is no nonsense about passive relaxation This course teaches you what to DO when you're about to have a baby. You will also learn the exercises that you need to know to strengthen your body. For childbirth Come into the birth prepared and ready!

The Movement For Birthing Summary

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Why look at the heavens from space

There is more to space astronomy besides the electromagnetic spectrum and in situ exploration.We also receive information from the Universe through essentially untapped channels, such as gravitational waves - another of Einstein's predictions -that have so far only been indirectly observed.Through them, we expect to improve our understanding of a variety of phenomena, such as merging neutron stars, forming gigantic black holes in the centres of Galaxies, and the very first instants of the explosion that gave birth to the Universe.

Origin of the Solar System

Both questions seem to have been answered, at least in part, by observations cited in Section 1 6. Most probably the Sun and a surrounding dusty disk formed from a single contracting cloud of gas and dust. After a few hundred million years, the disk gave birth to the planetary system now observed.

Formation of the Solar Nebula

Ultimately the temperature becomes great enough within the condensation for nuclear reactions to begin, thereby giving birth to the Sun. Meanwhile, the material in the disk collides, coalesces, and gradually forms larger and larger objects, as in Kant's theory. Because most of the grains of material have nearly identical orbits, collisions between them are relatively mild, which allows the particles to stick and remain together. Thus, larger agglomerations of particles are gradually built up.

From gas and dust to stars and planets

Magnetic fields and turbulence are often invoked as playing a key role in the birth process.The large diversity of orbital characteristics among the exo-planets points to the importance of planet-disc and planet-planet interactions.These can lead to surprising consequences, such as large-scale inward migration of giant planets and or pumping of the orbital eccentricity, which then raises questions about the long-term stability of these systems.The problem is therefore essentially to establish which basic characteristics of the star-formation process determine the bulk properties of the planetary system that eventually emerges, several tens of millions of years later.

The Uncertain Universe

Duality is the Uncertainty Principle. This has many repercussions for physics, but the simplest one involves the position of a particle and its speed. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle states that one cannot know the position and speed of a particle independently of one another. The better you know the position, the worse you know the speed, and vice-versa. If you can pinpoint the particle exactly, then its speed is completely unknown. If you know its speed precisely, then the particle could be located anywhere. This principle is quantitative and does not apply only to position and momentum, but also to energy and time and other pairs of quantities that are known as 'conjugate variables'. It is a particularly important consequence of the energy-time Uncertainty Principle that empty space can give birth to shortlived particles that spring in and out of existence on a timescale controlled by the Uncertainty Principle.

Introduction to modelling of galactic chemical evolution

Here the term -birth encompasses two parameters. One is the star-formation rate, quantifying the total amount of interstellar material consumed by stars in a given time interval and in a given region of the Galaxy for example, a birth rate B proportional to the power n of the gas density p(t), allows solution of the GCE models for n 2 the square of the surface gas density also does this (Schmidt, 1959 Timmes et al., 1995). The second parameter, the initial mass function, gives the birth rate of stars as a function of their mass. This is important because both stellar lifetime and yield depend on stellar mass. The lifetimes decrease from 10 000 Myr for the lowest-mass stars of 1 M0 and less through 100 Myr for stars of 5 M0 to 10 Myr for stars of 30 M0 (Timmes et al., 1995). The simplest assumption, that this mass-age relationship is independent of time, space and the composition of a star, allows the GCE models to be solved. An appropriate form of the initial mass function, 0(m) a AN...

Largescalestructure formation and the dark matter scenarios

Altogether the works we have summarized gave birth to the scenario of Cold Dark Matter (CDM). Assuming that dark matter was once in thermal and chemical equilibrium, this means that the dark matter particles first become non-relativistic, then leave the chemical equilibrium and finally leave their thermal equilibrium. The last stage typically occurs in the MeV range while the second happens at m x where x is a factor ranging from 10-20 for annihilating particles. For comparison, relativistic neutrinos are referred as to Hot Dark Matter (HDM) particles since they thermally decouple well before becoming non-relativistic. There is also a third scenario, which was first proposed in 1988 by Schaeffer and Silk 44 and studied in detail by Os-triker, bode and Turok 45 , and many other authors (see e.g. 46 ) namely collision-less Warm Dark Matter (WDM). This initially describes the case of particles with a mass of about a few keV and with negligible interactions. Such particles would have a...

Crises and new directions for Struve

On 1 January 1835, Emilie gave birth to a daughter, also named Emilie. The next day, Alfred died. Emilie recovered from the delivery of her daughter with difficulty, and three weeks later, as her son Otto described it, ''a kind spasms with fierce pains in the back and sides suddenly appeared.''11

The New Laws of Cosmic Order

In 1612, his patron, the Emperor Rudolph II died and Kepler moved to Linz to work as a teacher in a job similar to the one he had previously had in Graz. There he married anew and his young wife gave birth to seven children, two of whom died young. In 1626, Kepler had to leave Linz for religious reasons. Kepler is an example of someone who can solve great riddles of science while beset by many worries. In his late years, Kepler wrote how he has been suffering from a very strange fate, encountering difficulties one after another without being in any way guilty himself.

A unified model for both FR classes and the RLF 31 Modelling FRItype sources

In the following we adopt this simple model for FRI-type sources. If we now assume that the lifetime of the jet flows does not depend on the jet power, Q, and also that the RLF is dominated by FRI-type objects below -Pbreak, then we can infer the 'birth rate' of radio-loud AGN directly from the RLF to be proportional to Q-16.

Cosmic Rain and Cosmic Irons

Galaxies contain stars, and galaxies also contain gas. The stellar birthing process requires gas on a continual basis - no fresh gas, and star formation slows down or even halts Without regular fill ups of petrol, the car journey stops. Where does the supply of cosmic gas come from From whence is the source of the cosmic rain of gas onto our Galaxy - rain absolutely critical to maintaining the formation of those stellar fires of the night

Galaxies structural units of the cosmos

Stellar nursery in the constellation of Orion. Molecular clouds A and B were detected by their radio emissions. They appear to have given birth to several generations of stars (1a, 1b and 1c). Fig. 6.1. Stellar nursery in the constellation of Orion. Molecular clouds A and B were detected by their radio emissions. They appear to have given birth to several generations of stars (1a, 1b and 1c).

Dialectic between stars and clouds

Naturally, the first category abounds in cold and dusty clouds. We know from having studied such objects at close quarters that these clouds give birth to generation after generation of stars. The second category of galaxy on the other hand stands out by the lack of such fertile nebulosity. Why have some galaxies transformed virtually all their gas content into stars whilst others seem to have conserved their gas over all these billions of years

Alchemy and Chemistry

Alchemy, on the other hand, was an experimental discipline trying to establish cause-effects chains leading to repeatable experimental results indeed, its aim was the kind of knowledge that would allow man to reproduce in the laboratory the most mysterious operations of Nature. Therefore, although it relied on a general world-view that was abandoned in the seventeenth century, alchemy was closer to modern science than magic and astrology long before it gave birth to chemistry. Indeed, an attempt to understand what it was and why people were so interested in it will open an illuminating perspective on the nature of science and give material for reflection on the present plight of technological research. In point of fact, there was a great difference between it and astronomy, the science from which present physics originated. Astronomy was concerned with observations and tried to find a representation of the universe in terms of geometrical figures circles, ellipses, hyperbolas, and...

James E Webb 19061992

For seven years, arguably the most critical period in the agency's history. Shortly after Webb's arrival at NASA, President John F. Kennedy announced (on May 25, 1961) the U.S. government's intention to place a man on the Moon before the end of the decade. With that announcement, Kennedy energized the young U.S. space program and, at the same time, opened the gates to the greatest public works program in all of human history. The man who saw that program through, from birth to conclusion, was James Webb. Webb left office in October 1968, just a few months before Neil Armstrong took humankind's first steps on the Moon.

Scientific status of ensembles of universes

First, as emphasized in Section 25.3, there are well supported but still preliminary indications that whatever process or event gave birth to our universe or domain also generated a large number of other universes or domains. This is why so many cosmologists and theoretical physicists are taking the idea seriously. Several lines of current research and speculation are probing, accumulating evidence for and attempting to model the primordial emergence of such an ensemble. Besides Linde's chaotic inflationary programme, there are a number of others, including those of Steven Weinberg 12,13 and Jaume Garriga and Alex Vilenkin 14-16 , who have suggested that random quantum fluctuations generated during inflation could have led to a large number of different cosmic regions, each with a different vacuum energy density. All of them would then evolve differently, with significantly different physics perhaps emerging in subsequent (GUT and electro-weak)

Chemical Evolution of Galaxies and the Intracluster Medium

The gradual chemical enrichment of galaxies comes about through the ejection of material processed in the interior of stars. Red giants and asymptotic giant branch stars, AGBs, eject considerable amounts of material, seen in dust clouds emanating from these stars. The gas and dust is propelled away by the star's radiation pressure acting on the dust. The dust eventually aggregates in clouds that, on cooling, give birth to new chemically enriched stars. Novae and other cataclysmic variables also enrich the interstellar medium with heavy elements.

Gravitational Biology Facility

Advanced Animal Habitat will house up to six rats or a dozen mice and be compatible with a compartment called the Mouse Development Insert that will accommodate pregnant mice and subsequently their offspring from birth through weaning. The Plant Research Unit will support plant specimens up to 38 cm in height (root + shoot) through all stages of growth and development. The Insect Habitat will house Drosophila melanagoster and other insects for multigenerational studies and for radiation biology, and the Egg Incubator will support the incubation and development of small reptilian and avian eggs prior to hatching. All of the Gravitational Biology Facility habitats will have the experimental capability of selectable gravity levels. The Aquatic Habitat, the Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat, and the Plant Research Unit will be used on the Centrifuge Facility's 2.5-m-diameter centrifuge when selectable gravity levels of up to 2g are needed. The Insect Habitat and Egg Incubator...

Radio Pulsar Statistics

Abstract Radio pulsars are a major probe of the Galactic neutron star population and its evolution. Our attempts to derive the properties of the underlying, as opposed to the observed, population of radio pulsars in our Galaxy have gradually improved over the years thanks to large-scale surveys and more detailed simulations of the population. This review attempts to summarize our current state of knowledge in this area. We discuss the currently observed pulsar population, selection effects and correction techniques used to deduce the Galactic distribution and birth rate. Two outstanding problems in pulsar statistics are then reviewed the period evolution of normal pulsars and the number of isolated 'recycled' pulsars. Finally, an exciting new search project with the Arecibo telescope is described along with the ultimate future pulsar survey with the Square Kilometer Array.

Gauge Freedom in Astrodynamics

It is often convenient to deliberately deviate from osculation by substituting the Lagrange constraint with an arbitrary condition that gives birth to a family of non-osculating elements. The freedom in choosing this condition is analogous to the gauge freedom. Calculations in non-osculating variables are mathematically valid and sometimes highly advantageous, but their physical interpretation is non-trivial. For example, non-osculating orbital elements parameterise instantaneous conics not tangent to the orbit, so the non-osculating inclination will be different from the real inclination of the physical orbit. First, what seems natural is not always optimal. The freedom of choice of the supplementary condition (the gauge freedom) gives birth to an internal symmetry (the gauge symmetry) of the problem. Most importantly, it can be exploited for simplifying the equations of motion for the constants. On this issue we shall dwell in the current paper. A harmonic oscillator disturbed by a...

Stage Three Inspace services

In-space services are the on-site support and monitoring of people in orbit, both physical and psychological, which is necessary for survival and mission accomplishment. Here is one current example of in-space services. On Father's Day (June 19, 2004), astronaut Michael Fincke was sitting 225 miles in orbit on the International Space Station. Down on Earth, his spouse Renita had just given birth to daughter Tarali in Clear Lake, Texas. NASA arranged a telephone and video link so the new Dad-to-be became the first man in space actually to hear and see his wife give birth to their child. Michael found the experience awesome , commenting My wife has already given me the Moon, and now she's given me a star '' Fincke had been

Visiting the Deep Sky Menagerie

Emission nebulas are great stretches of (mostly) hydrogen that pepper the Milky Way's spiral arms and which, when they contract due to gravitational effects and shockwaves from nearby supernovas, give birth to new generations of stars. Until stars are born, diffuse nebulas are dark objects there's no light to excite them. When hot and massive young stars come to life in the midst of these clouds of gas and begin radiating torrents of ultraviolet light, nebulas begin to glow with the ruddy light of luminous hydrogen think neon tube. Diffuse nebulas are among the most beautiful objects in the heavens.

Moon Power The Universal

Energy produced by the Moon's passage through the twelve houses and signs of the Zodiac. These houses govern the twelve facets of our life, and the rhythms of our life's cycle, our emotions, finances, consciousness, home, children, career, friends, wishes, fears, love, personality and all that goes to make our sorrows and joys. Depending on the mystical rhythm of the Moon and her relationship---harmonious or discordant---to the constellation and houses of the sky over which they rule, she will govern our human activity and give birth to our vices and virtues. The infinite and concealed dance of the Moon through the Zodiac is far from affecting only you, but all of us. You are a microcosm or a child of the Universe and there is reason for you to be. You are a part of this incredible physical and spiritual structure called a macrocosm.

Pythagorean Mysticism

Higher harmonics being obtained by changing the length of the string in simple fractions. Turning to the heavens, they asserted that each planetary sphere, as well as the sphere of the stars, emits its own characteristic musical sound. Most humans never notice such sounds, if only because they have heard them continuously from birth. The spatial intervals between the spheres were also supposed to be proportional to musical intervals, according to some of the legends about the Pythagoreans.

A star is a sphere of glowing gas

To learn more about stars, we must sample different stars at every stage of life and piece together the whole cycle from birth to death. Hubble's vivid images have documented the tumultuous birth of stars and delivered many astonishing pictures documenting their evolution. The birth of stars in neighbouring stellar 'maternity wards' can be used as a time machine to replay the events that created our Solar System.

History of the Sun Nebulous birth

The business of the perfect interstellar cloud is to confiscate or at least filter the light of stars lying behind or even within it. Certain clouds referred to as bright nebulas are lit up from within. They are in the process of giving birth to a generation of stars, for like rats, cats and fish, stars are born in broods. Hence, the large, dusty and icy interstellar clouds are not only repositories for the ashes of defunct stars, but also for the material that will give body to new stars. Those stars currently forming, still buried deep within this cloudy placenta, can be observed in the radio, millimetre and infrared regions. Indeed, absorption by gas and dust is minimal at these wavelengths.

What Went Wrong on the Way to the Future

Communications satellites are a multi-billion-dollar industry. We are beginning to do wonders with satellite remote sensing and navigation systems. Despite significant birthing problems, the Hubble space telescope has returned over a hundred thousand images, and in the late 1990s we witnessed some magnificent automated missions, such as the landing of a rover on Mars.

The Three Masks of our Milky Way Galaxy

One of our most important diagnostics in trying to understand spiral galaxies is to measure how the stars actually move. For example, most of the stars in the disk of a spiral galaxy move in almost circular orbits around the galaxy center. The implication is that the gas from which those stars have formed, has already settled into the disk before most of the formation of stars takes place. Yet implicitly intertwined is a story forever masked forever lost it is the story of what happens during the settling process itself. What does the birthing process of spiral galaxies actually reveal After all, a galaxy becomes quite different from what it was before. Has it not changed from a rather chaotic system into a well-ordered disk We are reminded of the vibrant youth of the boy in William Wordsworth's Ode Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood (V) We may see a young boy or girl now, but each one has emerged through a birthing process, the exact details of which are...

Infrared studies of classical novae

Galactic classical novae take part in a cycle of Galactic chemical evolution in which grains and gas in the ejecta of evolved stars enrich the metal abundance of the Galactic 'ecosystem' (see Figure 8.1). Metals produced in stars during post-main-sequence (PMS) nucleosynthesis are ejected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds and explosive events. Some of these metals remain in the gas phase, but others can condense to form grains. In the ISM, the gas and grains may become a component of the giant molecular clouds that give birth to new generations of young stars and planetary systems during the star formation process. Grains believed to be the remnants of the star formation phase are found in our own Solar System as inclusions in meteorites and in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs Brownlee, 1987) as well as in the debris disks that surround main-sequence stars. Some of the grains in the meteorites appear to have formed in circumstellar outflows of evolved stars (see...

First Impressions

Telescope atop the Eyring Science Center on the campus of Brigham Young University (see Figure 1.2). There were several other young couples with us on that occasion, and, like us, one of the other couples was expecting a child in the near future. The sky clarity and stillness were ideal, and Saturn made a huge impression on each of us. The night was June 28, 1962, and before the evening hours of June 29 both expectant mothers had given birth to healthy new babies. It is entirely possible that our viewing of Saturn that evening had no connection with the births of those two babies it is also likely that the climbing of a steep flight of stairs that marked the entrance to the observatory was more directly responsible for the timing of these blessed events than was Saturn. Whichever (if either) hastened the births of the two babies, Saturn has nevertheless held a special place in our family's hearts and minds since that night.

What to Observe

If you never see the real or natural night sky, how can you appreciate it It is almost like describing the blue sky to a blind-from-birth person or a violin's sound This applies to anyone living in a polluted environment from birth, never experiencing a clean one the interpretation of what's important differs from those on the outside. Both take their situations as normal, and if those in cities are in the majority, the preference for pollution, be it car exhaust and particulates or light, can rule.


The blackening of silver halides when exposed to light gave birth to astronomical photography in the latter half of the 19th century. Basically, when light is absorbed by tiny crystals or grains of slightly soluble silver halide salts, like silver bromide (AgBr), there is a reaction of the form Ag+Br + light energy Ag++ Br + e in which a negatively charged electron (e ) is released from the bromine ion (Br-) and then combines with the positively charged silver ion to make a neutral silver atom (Ag++ e Ag). Grains containing free silver are said to contain a latent image''. During the chemical development process much more silver is produced around that initial deposit to amplify the effect and then any unexposed silver bromide is eliminated by the fixing process. Modern photographic emulsions are sensitive to a wider range of wavelengths than the human eye from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Because it is difficult to relate the sensitivity to illumination of one part of a...

Science in Athens

In the fifth century before Christ, the city state of Athens, having defeated the Persian Empire, became the center of Greek culture and science. This city, with a population of at most 300,000, gave birth to an astoundingly rich culture whose influence is strongly present in our western heritage. Sculpture and architecture flourished. The masters of tragedy Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides created drama. Thucy-dides founded critical historiography. Socrates (469-399 BC) wandered the streets of Athens delighting and angering people with his unusual questions.

Hybrid Is Born

Now comes the challenge combining the rocket with the airplane. They must be integrated successfully, and give birth to a hybrid vehicle with exceptional qualities superior to its forebears (Fig. 3.6). This baby will have far more potential than the dwarf rocketplane X-15, and be far less clumsy than the awkward Space Shuttle. This vehicle, when fully grown, will be able to stand on its own legs (not its tail), and land on its own feet. It will be far better adapted to its environments than either of its parents, flying in the air faster than its airplane mother, and flying through space farther than its rocket father. A precious spaceplane is born.

Planetary Systems

Just as some astronomers believe that all stars are members of double or multiple systems, others believe that all stars have planetary systems. Planets do appear, after all, to be a natural consequence of the birth process of stars. Newly forming suns spin ever more rapidly as they condense out of their nebulous cocoons and become smaller. If something doesn't slow them down, they will eventually tear themselves to pieces. As it happens, at a critical point in this process, the spin of these youthful suns suddenly drops dramatically and becomes that of a stable main sequence star. One of the theories of just how this occurs involves the ejection of rings of material from the condensing protostar, which then act as stellar brake shoes to slow its spin. (It is a well-known fact that if all of the planets in our own solar system were somehow pushed back into the Sun, it would then rapidly increase its spin rate and become unstable.)

Holding Water

At the same time, baby venus and baby Mars arrived, also swaddled in thick, steamy air. They were littermates, fresh rocky worlds coalescing out of a single swarm of tussling planetesimals. Almost surely, they all began life somewhat waterlogged. How come only Earth has managed to remain so Why did venus and Mars lose their water while Earth retained what seems to us a healthy amount The answer may lie in the different ways that each responded to the hot, steamy birth experience.

Legends of Centaurus

Among the people of the Andes mountains in South America those who breed llamas believe good fortune will be theirs if during the birthing season of the llamas (November), the eyes of the celestial llama appears over the southeastern horizon. The eyes of the celestial llama are Hadar and Rigil Kentaurus of Centaurus. Among the Greeks, centaurs were mythical creatures, half horse half man. Most centaurs were considered to be savage. There was one exception, the son of Kronus and Philyra. When Kronus, who was married to Rhea, was discovered making love to Philyra, the beautiful sea nymph, he turned himself and Philrya into horses. When Philyra gave birth her child was half horse, half man, a centaur, Philyra was so distressed that she changed her form into a linden tree. Her son was named Chiron. Chiron grew up to be the wisest and gentlest of the centaurs. He lived at the foot of Mt Pelion and established the finest school in

Circling Galaxies

Rubin presented her work in a 10-minute talk at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Philadelphia in December 1950, only a few weeks after she earned her master's degree and gave birth to her first child, David. Few astronomers accepted her conclusions at the time, but later research showed that she was right. Indeed, her study helped another astronomer, Gerard de Vaucouleurs, develop


Only one year after the conference mentioned above, Kuiper (1951) suggested that the mass distribution in the primordial cloud, which gave birth to the Solar System, did not end abruptly at the distance of Neptune. Although no major planet formed beyond Neptune (only the minor planet Pluto formed there), more distant remnants of the accretion disk still exist, many probably in the form of cometary nuclei. That assemblage of trans-Neptunian objects is now referred to as the Kuiper Belt. In recent discussions of these objects, Weissman & Levison (1997) as well as Gomes (1999) point out that Edgeworth (1949) had similar ideas and, therefore, the belt should more correctly be called the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. This belt may contain as many as 6.7 x 109 objects with a radius larger than 1 km within 50 AU (Weissman & Levison, 1997). It is believed to be the source of comets with periods of less than about 200 years and with orbits more or less in the ecliptic plane. Older comets, such as...

Legends of Lyra

Among the Maori the brightest star in Lyra was called Whanui and symbolizes a legend of a love triangle. One night Whanui met the beautiful wife of Rango-Maui. Her name was Pani. Whanui was so overcome by her beauty that although he knew he would be doing wrong he seduced Pani and made love to her. She subsequently gave birth to the sweet potatoes. Her husband Rango-Maui was so disturbed by their presence that Pani allowed him to send the sweet potato children down to Earth. This so angered Whanui that he, in retaliation, sent three kinds of caterpillars down to earth to feed upon the sweet potatoes. As a result, before Whanui, the brightest star in Lyra, appears in the sky at dawn the Earth people store sweet potatoes in the ground to avoid the caterpillars.

Legends of Ophiuchus

Aesculapius was the son of Apollo and the Thessalian princess Coronis, who died giving birth to Aesculapius. When he was a youth he had such a radiant appearance that everyone knew that he had to be one of the gods. Chiron, the wisest of the Centaurs, taught him the art of medicine. One day Aesculapius observed a snake

Legend of Perseus

King Acrisius of Argos in Greece was told by an oracle that he would someday be killed by his grandson. To prevent this he imprisoned his daughter Danae so that no one could reach her. But Jupiter saw her and fell in love with her. The prison was no barrier. When his daughter gave birth to Perseus, the king put them both in a chest and set them adrift on the sea. The chest did not sink, but eventually landed safely on the island of Seriphus controlled by King Polydectes. When Perseus became a young man he was full of adventure and eager for glory. King Polydectes fell in love with Danae, but realized that her devotion to Perseus would interfere with his courtship of her. He therefore decided to send Perseus

Legend of Virgo

This was the time when Ishtar, the Chaldean goddess of earth and fertility, went through the seven gates of the underworld to find her husband Tammuz, who had been slain by a wild boar and taken to the underworld. As soon as Ishtar entered the first gate to the underworld, the Earth darkened. When she reached the underworld the Queen of Hell refused to give up Tammuz. When the gods over Earth sent a message to the Queen of the underworld to release Tammuz or be destroyed, Ishtar and Tammuz were sprinkled with magic water, set free and ascended through the seven gates of Hell to Earth. As they reentered Earth spring began, flowers bloomed and the sun warmed the land.


For now, Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 will serve as a map of the terrain ahead to be tackled by Europe's space scientists. It is not a firm plan. However, using the map as a guide, ESA will make priorities for long-term technology development. Nonetheless, the actual progress and directions taken across the terrain ahead should remain, as far as possible, in the hands of the science community. Because the themes will be the dominant factor, it may well be that missions not foreseen now will materialise before long, that mission foreseen now will vanish, that the sequences outlined here might be changed.The themes outlined here will be realised by the community responding to a phased series of announcements of opportunity.This process, constrained by the budgets available in years to come, will eventually give birth to the actual missions that will build the programme. After a competitive phase, during which several missions will be studied in parallel and the technological requirements...


Named in honor of Catherine and Antoine Labeyrie. Catherine was the hypersensitization expert at the 0.9-m Schmidt telescope with which this object was discovered in recent years, she has devoted her energy to the preservation of the ecology of the Provence region. Antoine is an optician as well as an astronomer he participated in the invention of holographic diffraction and is the inventor of speckle interferometry. The speckle technique, which has given birth to optical multi-telescope interferometry, has been used to obtain images of several minor planets. Antoine currently holds the chair of observational astrophysics at the College de France and is currently director of the Observatoire de Haute Provence. (M 34628) Citation prepared by A. Morely.

Are we Alone

The symbols in this equation have the following meanings. N is the number of transmitting civilizations in our Galaxy, which is what we want to determine. The first term on the right hand side is R, which is the birth-rate of stars in our Galaxy per year. We know that the Milky Way is about 10 billion years old, and it contains about 100 billion stars. As a very rough stab we could guess that the required birth-rate is therefore about ten stars per year. It seems unlikely that all stars could even in principle be compatible with life existing in their neighbourhood. For example, very big stars burn out very quickly

North Africa

These included two goddesses, both depicted in capes that have been variously interpreted as feathers or serpent scales. The goddess Vihinam is shown holding forceps with a child at her feet corresponding with the widespread concept of the Moon goddess as patroness of childbirth. The other goddess, called Varsissima, should correspond with Venus. The figure of Macurgum holds a book and a staff with two serpents coiled about it. He is clearly an equivalent of Mercury. There are two horsemen, Macurtum and Junam, one of which is expected to be the Sun, and the other, Mars. The lantern held by Macurtum suggests that he is to be equated with the Sun. At the center, holding a club, is the figure of Bonchor, presumably the local designation of Saturn, as head of the pantheon. Finally, Matilam, presiding at the sacrifice of a ram, must represent Jupiter.

Islamic Astronomy

Scholars in the Islamic world were responsible for providing a vital bridge connecting ancient Babylonian and Greek astronomy to modern scientific astronomy. But for this bridge, the traditions of thought that had led to the development of mathematical astronomy in Hellenistic Greece (after the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century B.C.E. had brought the Babylonian and Greek traditions into direct contact) would have been all but severed. In any case, several centuries had passed by the time (in the ninth century C.E.) that serious quantities of old astronomical treatises written in Greek began to be retrieved, translated into Arabic, and thence communicated around the Muslim world. There they helped give birth to one of the world's richest and most sophisticated astronomical traditions. Early elements of this tradition (including translations and re-translations of the ancient Greek texts) subsequently passed into Christian Europe, where they contributed to the...

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Higher Dimensions

The Alien IQ Test Black Holes A Traveler's Guide Chaos and Fractals A Computer-Graphical Journey Chaos in Wonderland Visual Adventures in a Fractal World Computers and the Imagination Computers, Pattern, Chaos, and Beauty Fractal Horizons The Future Use of Fractals Frontiers of Scientific Visualization (with Stu Tewksbury) Future Health Computers and Medicine in the 21st Century The Girl Who Gave Birth to Rabbits Keys to Infinity The Loom of God Mazes for the Mind Computers and the Unexpected Mit den Augen des Computers The Pattern Book Fractals, Art, and Nature The Science of Aliens Spider Legs (with Piers Anthony) Spiral Symmetry (with Istvan Hargittai) Strange Brains and Genius Time A Traveler's Guide Visions of the Future Art, Technology, and Computing in the 21st Century Visualizing Biological Information

Axp 1841045

SNR, or indicate a site of active star formation that also gave birth to the AXP. In general, the 24 im and radio emission highlight similar structures, especially several arc like features can be seen in both images (Fig. 4). On the other hand, there are also distinct differences, in particular, enhanced 24 m emission is visible in the central area

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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