Box 2.2. The Cassini—Huygens Mission

The Cassini-Huygens mission (Matson et al., 2002), developed jointly by the American (NASA) and European (ESA) space agencies includes the sending of an orbiter (Cassini) around Saturn and of a probe in the atmosphere of Titan. Launch took place in October 1997. After two fly-bys of Venus, then of the Earth in August 1999, and Jupiter in December 2000, Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in July 2004, and the Huygens probe entered into the atmosphere of Titan on January 14th, 2005. The nominal duration of the Cassini part of the mission is 4 years. The artificial satellite of Saturn, Cassini, contains twelve scientific instruments. Most of them, in particular the IR spectroscopy measurements (CIRS, VIMS) and UV (UVIS), are essential for exobiology. It is the same for most of the six instruments of the Huygens probe, in particular the GC-MS and ACP experiments. The mission also includes 9 interdisciplinary scientists (IDS), who will carry out scientific investigations based on the integrated use of the future Cassini-Huygens data. It is necessary to note the very strong European participation in this mission. (;

The Cassini Orbiter

- Scientific instrument Acronym Principal Investigator

Optical remote sensing measurements

- Infrared spectrometer

- Imagery

- Ultraviolet spectrograph

- Visible/near infrared spectrometer

Fields of particles and waves

- Spectrometer of plasma

- Analyzer of cosmic dusts

- Mass spectrometry of ions & neutrals

- Magnetometer

- Imagery of the magnetosphere

- Measurement of radio waves & plasma

Microwave remote sensing measurements

CIRS V. Kunde, USA

ISS C. Porco, USA

UVIS L. Esposito, USA

VIMS R.H. Brown, USA

CAPS D. Young, USA

CDA E. Gruan, Germany

INMS J.H. Waite, USA

MAG D. Southwood, GB

MIMI S. Krimigis, USA RPWS D. Gurnett, USA

- Radar

- Radio Measurements

Radar RSS

Box 2.2. The Cassini—Huygens

- Interdisciplinary program

- Magnetosphere and plasmas

- Dust and rings

- Magnetosphere and plasmas

- Atmospheres

- Satellites and asteroids

- Aeronomy and interaction with solar wind

The Huygens Probe

- Scientific instrument

- Gas phase Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer

- Collector and pyrolyser of aerosols

- Measurement of the atmospheric structure

- Descent imagery and spectral radiometry

- Doppler measurement of the winds

- Measuring Instrument of surface

Interdisciplinary program

- Aeronomy

- Interactions between atmosphere and surface

- Chemistry and exobiology

Mission(continued) IDS

M. Blanc, France J.N. Cuzzi, USA T.I. Gombosi, USA T. Owen, USA L.A. Soderblom, USA D.F. Strobel, USA

Acronym Principal Investigator

GC-MS H. Niemann, USA

ACP G. Israel, France

HASI M. Fulchignoni, Italy

DISR M. Tomasko, USA

DWE M. Bird, Germany SSP J.C. Zarnecki, GB

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