$900,000 or even $90,000 would have been more intimidating. The zoning change was not granted.

2. A. S. F.ddinglon, 'Ihe Mathematical Theory of Relativity, p. 162, Chelsea, New York, 1975

3. H. S. l,eavitt in Annals of the Harvard College Observatory 60, 97-108(1908).

4 An interesting modern account of the discussion between Curtis and Shapley is given by Virginia Trimble in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 107, 1133 11995).

5. E. tJ. Hubble, The AstropbysicalJournal 69, 103(1929)

6. Although the units of the Hubble constant are a hit mixed, they are suitable for the subject. Redshifts can be expressed as velocities in kilometers per second and distances in parsecs (1 parsec = 3 262 light-years = 3 086 x 10th meters) or mega parsecs (millions of parsecs). A parsec is a good unit, because the distances to nearby stars are a few parsecs and mega parsecs are good units because the distances to nearby galaxies are a few rnega parsecs A .similar unit that is not standard, but useful in a particular context is the Smoot, used at MIT. A Smoot is the length of Oliver R Smoot 1962 5 feet 7 inches The length of the Harvard Bridge, across which MIT undergraduates must walk on freezing Massachusetts nights is 364 4 Smoot.s plus one ear

7 The Bootes Void was reported in 'Ihe Astropbysical Journal Letters, 248, 1.47 (1981) by R. P. Kirshner, A. Oemler. P. Schechter, and S A Shee t man

8. This survey pioneered the large-scale use of electronic cameras scanning across patches of the sky to select the galaxies and the use of fiber optics to obtain the spectra of many galaxies simultaneously. The Las Campanas Redshift Survey is described in S A Shectman. S D Landy, A. Oemler, l~X L. Tucker, H Lin, R. P. Kirshner, and Paul L Schechter, The Astropbysical Journal, 470, 172 (1996).

9. George Gamow, My World Line, Viking Press, New York, 1970. Gamow was a wonderfully creative and playful person, but perhaps not the world's most reliable narrator. Still, the quote is too good to resist. Print the legend

10. A S Eddlngton, Ihe Expanding Universe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, LIK, 1987. This book is, as noted in the introduction by Sir William McCrca, "a maddening production," with the cosmological constant as its main subject "The reader can never be sure when he is being invited to follow a serious arguments, or when he is being—oh so delicately—conned!"

11. Kddington, The Expanding Universe, p. 102.

12. The detailed comparison of general relativity with the evidence is laid out for the general reader in Clifford Will's excellent book. Was Einstein Right? Basic Books, New York, 1993.

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