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Astrophysical Journal. 'Ibc. 18. 81, 166,

184-86, 222, 262 ' Astrophysical Timescales," 241 astrophysics, 18 Axel rod. Tim, 155 axions, 129

Baa tic. Walter, 34. 37-38, 67, 139. 156, 175, 27Jn 4

ha heal I, John, 43-14, 192, 268 Ballot, Christoph, SO Baibon, Roberto, 174-75 Barns, Brian, 197, 263 Bartusiak, Marcia. 273n 5 haryons, 128, 13H

Berkeley Astronomy Department, 179 Herkeley Automatic Supernova Search

■[earn, 180 Herkeley Physics Department, 179 Rethe, Hans, 93, 277n 6 liig Dang. 2. 4, 6. 13-14, 86, «9-90, 225.

254. 262, 263, 264; evidence of, 114-35 black hole, 46. 77 Blanco Telescope, 201, 238 BOOMERANG, 211-52 Bodies Croat Void. 71 Bowdoln Prij-e. 65 Rrahe. Tycho. 9, 32-33 LJranch, David, 159 Burrows, Adam. 210. 211 Bunsen, Robert, 1H

CaIán/Tolodo supernova search, 171-73,

Canada-Franee-Hawaii Telescope ÍCFEIT),

201. 203, 238, 267 Carnegie Observa lories. 44, 149 Carroll, Sean, 21CH1. 280n 7 Casimir effect, 236 Cassiopeia A, 161-62 Center for Particle Astrophysics, 1H1-H2 Central Bureau fur Astronomical Telegrams,

41, 273n4 ocphekls, 62-63, 67. 97, 98, lt)2-i, 106. 10B, 264

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). 15, 153, 171-73, 175, 191, 203, 238, 266

ChaIIis, Peter. 15 16. 31, 33. 178. 196. 205 ChandrasekhaT, Si i bra h manyan, 26, 31. 153 Chandro.sekhar limit, 26, 28, 30. 31. 105. 141, 212

charge coupled device (CCD) detectors,

100-102, 175, 198-99 Chevalier, Roger, 161-62 Chornock, Ryan. 196 Clocchiatti, Alejandro, 197 Coil. Alison, 19Ó, 227

Colgate, Sliding, 147. 166, 167. I79-H0, 25« tomle, August«.-, 17

cosmic attderation, see universe, expansion of

Cosmic Background Explorer <COBE) satellite, 122, 250 cosmic |erk, 267

cuMiiii microwave background <CMB), 116, 121. 136-37. 2SO; detection of, 117. measurement of 264. 265. uniformity of, 117 cosmologkal constant, 58-59. 75-79, HI, 9<j. 127. 132-33. 135. 136. 165, 210, 211. 214. 220. 224, 242, 256, 25«. 262. 266 270; properties thai are distasteful to theorists. 255 cosmology. 260. 263- 270 Couch. Warrick. 170 Crab NelwLi. 44, 64-65 Grafoord Pri7t\ 25 critical density. 79. KU, 1M ■Critical Dialogs in Cosmology," 192-9} Cunis. Heber 1) , 63. 64.67-68. 172

dark energy. 138-39, 232, 236, 248, 253-57, 259, acceleration of universe due to. 262-70; compared to tosmologkal constant, 266. 267, composition of. 270 dark matter, 37. 44. 57, 74, 127-28, 181, 194, 231-33. 248, 253-56, 259, composition of, 129-30. 270, deceleration of universe due to, 262-70; hot daik matter. 134-35; measurements for. 251, 255, standard cold dark matter model, 134, 262 See also baryons, neutrinos, weakly interacting massive partk'les (WIMPs) Darwin, Charles, 20, 21 deceleration measurement, 163-66 Dekel, Avishai, 193

de Vaucouleurs. Gerard, 149-50 Diercks, Alan. 196 Dirac, P A M , 129 Doppler, Christian, 50 Doppler effect, 50 Dorpat Observatory, 63 Duhalde, Oscar, 39-40,47 dust, interstellar, 51. 52. 150-51, 1«2, 187. 193, 227, 229-30: and "reddening." 151, 227, 229 l>yson. Sir Frank. 56. 224

Harth age of, 20-21, bombardment by asteroids. 180-81. spherical geometry of. 2 Bastman, Ron, 110. 150. 176, 211 Rtldington. Arthur Stanly, 55-56, 61, 69.

76—77 91,92. 132-33. 275n 10 Einstein. AllkH, 3-4. 8. 51-59. 90 106, 135. 192, 262, 265 .See aho c<jsiix>l<tgital ton-stant. lelalivity. theory <>t kinxtein't ('»finished S\tn/tfv»ty

(lianusiak). 273n 5 electrons. 116. 128 Ellis, Rk hard, 170, 215. 263 ESSENCE (Pquation of State SupFrNovae trace Gosmit Expansion), 266 European Southern Observatory (HSO>,

16. 168-71. 181, 191 expanding photosphere method (EPM),

110. 150. 151 hx{Kmitiuf> I'nit vtse 77v < Eddington 1 275n 10

Hesen, Rob. 162

Eilippenko, Ak x. 15. 159-60. 173, 176. 179. 182. 183, 196. 200-201, 219-21. 227. 238 Ei/eau. Armand-Hippolyte, 7 fossil record 21. 85 Fowler. Willy. 31. 34, 141 Fransson, Claes, 109 Fraunhofer, Joseph von. 17, ) H Freedman, Wendy, 107-8, 110 Friedmann. Alexandr. 75, 79,80 future, predktionof, 7-8

galaxies. 84. and dark matter. 37. 57; distances l>etween. 10.31,68-69, distribution of. 121; elliptical, 28, 168. 225. 263, galadit cannibalism, 157; galaxy clusters. 57. 137. 168, measurement of velocities, 68.74; spiral, 28, 225 Ser also M31, Milky Way galaxy Galilei, Galileo, 98-99 Gamow. George. 75. 117, 125 Garnavith, Peier. 196, 207-8, 215-16, 217,

251, 255. 256 Gauss. Karl Friedrich, 2-3. 24, 53. 132, 166.

217-18. 265, 272n 2 Geller. Margaret, 71 Gemini Observatory, 241, 266 Giacconi. Rkcardo, 243 Gilliland, Ron, 197, 205. 206, 244 Glanz, Jim, 217-18

Goddard Space Flight Geniel, 42. 10H God s Equation i Aczel), 274n 5 Goldberg. Leo, 6*5. 1'tV Goldliabcr. Geison, 212-14, 220, 221. 222,

2H0n 4 Gorsi, Martin, 272n 3 Gott, RiclurJ 272n 4, 278n S Göttinnen observatory, 2. 3 graphs, 69 Graves, Jenny, 4H gravity, 5. and massive stars, 54-36 Gross. l>.ivid, 210 Gunn.Jim, 143, 154. ISS 56 Glich, Ahn, 120 21. 27Nn 4

Knie, George Ellery. Si). 65 66. 99 Haie TcW ope. 81. 99. 138 Hamuy. Mario. 172. 176, 186, 1% Hansen. Lelf. 16K-7 L Hartwig, limsi, 63

E larva rd College Observatory, 61. 04, 65,

Great Refractor al. lot) I larvjrd-Siriithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CIA), 71, m. 170, 173, 176, 178 Heber D Cunis Telescope. 172 Heiscnl uncertainly principle, 119 Hermann, Robert. 117 high-z-supernova seumth team, 190-93, 194-2117, 214—22. 224. 232-33. 234-35, 237 43, 246-48, 262, 263, ciialions in the physics ant! astrophysics literature to the Riess et al 1998 paper. 2Hln 1 I lillebrandt, Wolfgang. 211 Höflich. Peler, 17H. 226 E itigan, Craig, 196. 263 Home Is Where the Wind Bfouv illoyle), 273n 4

How the Universe Will t:nd." 24H 1 loyle, Sir Fred, 24-25, H 141, 272-73n 4 Hubble. Edwin Powell, 56, 67. 68-69, 75. 76. 83, 91, 93.95, and ceptieid variables

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