Dumbbell Exercises and Lifting Routines
Like other deep-sky objects, the most conspicuous planetary nebulae usually receive nicknames that refer to their shapes. Thus, the most famous planetary nebula is the Ring Nebula (M57) and the most brightly prominent is the Dumbbell Nebula (M27). (The largest and greatest in total brightness is the Helix Nebula NGC 7293 , but it is spread out over so large an area that its surface brightness is troublesomely low.) Another challenge with the Ring Nebula is trying to see more than one color in it. My eyes seem to be especially sensitive to color in low-light objects, so I may not be a representative case. But on some nights presumably when the seeing was good I have been able to detect the faint red, yellow, and blue in M57 with a 13-inch or even a 10-inch telescope. I've also detected several colors in our next showcase planetary nebula M27, the Dumbbell Nebula. Even though M27 is bigger and brighter than M57, there are two reasons that it is less popular than the Ring Nebula. First,...
With or without a narrowband filter, the Dumbbell Nebula makes its presence known immediately, even in our compromised skies. This is not one of those sights that you suspect you can see It appears as a bright white egg-shape in the field of view, quite luminous and striking (Figure 7.55). Sufficient aperture will resolve its famous outline easily, and shadings of brightness become obvious. The subtle extensions on either side may be seen with larger scopes, and give the nebula a somewhat different overall outline, much more elongated (as in my drawing in Figure 7.55a). The illuminating star is a hard catch, though in good viewing conditions, you may possibly succeed. It just shows on the video frame (Figure 7.55b) at the center of the bar . An image intensifier works in an interesting way the nebula fades substantially, but many stars within and around it, unseen without intensification, become obvious to the point that perceptions of the internal structure of the nebula itself seem...
The first image is the original rioo image. The second is the CO, and the third panel shows the HI image. The final panel shows the remaining r100 after subtraction of the HI- and CO-related dust optical depth. This feature located in the central region of the molecular dumbbell may contain H2 not traced by CO. Figure 1. Infrared Excess Feature. The first image is the original rioo image. The second is the CO, and the third panel shows the HI image. The final panel shows the remaining r100 after subtraction of the HI- and CO-related dust optical depth. This feature located in the central region of the molecular dumbbell may contain H2 not traced by CO.
An alternative scenario for the formation of BCMs is the coalescence of the central brightest galaxies of merging subclusters (Johnstone et al. 1991). Since groups infall onto clusters along filaments defined by the surrounding LSS, this scenario can also naturally account for the observed axes alignments. Within this scenario it is easy to explain the distorted morphology of the cD galaxy in A 697 (Metzger & Ma 2000), as well as the multiple nuclei of some BCMs, in terms of ongoing mergers of the brightest galaxies of individual subgroups (Tremaine 1990). The high relative speed of the galaxies making up a dumbbell galaxy may be the result of the orbital motions of their subclusters within the cluster (Beers et al. 1992). It is remarkable that dumbbell dominant galaxies are often found in clusters with a significant degree of subclustering (e.g. A 3530 and 3532 in the Shapley concentration, see Bardelli et al. 2001 A 521, see Maurogordato et al. 2000 A 3266, see Quintana et al....
Most interstellar molecules are asymmetrical in shape, or at least those that have been detected are. For example, an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom combine in a molecule known as hydroxy (OH), shaped something like a dumbbell, with the large oxygen and small hydrogen atoms glued together by an encircling electron that originally belonged to the hydrogen. Such a molecule is capable of rotating in two ways either end-over-end, or around an axis drawn between the two atoms. Whenever two or more energy states are possible, transitions can occur between them and that allows for the emission of energy at specific signature wavelengths, as discussed in the previous chapter for hydrogen. Some molecular species have dozens of possible energy states, depending on their architecture. The signature spectrum of such molecules may contain hundreds of individual lines located over a wide range of wavelength, either optical, radio, infrared, or ultraviolet.
Moving up to the 12 inch Cassegrain with no filter gives a great view of the cluster 42 stars are resolved and it is pretty bright, pretty large, pretty rich, compressed and shows many pairs within the cluster with a 40 mm eyepiece. Going to the 30 mm eyepiece the planetary is obvious, pretty bright, pretty large, a little elongated 1.2X1 and a hint of a dumbbell shape is seen. The UHC filter makes the contrast much better. The central star of the planetary was never seen.
The TDRS-B had been taken off the flight and was replaced by a 3,375-kg dumbbell-shaped Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA), designed to be grappled by the Remote Manipulator for a series of tests that involved moving the arm with a load attached. This was a simulation of satellite deployment and retrieval activities that would be conducted using the RMS on later missions. While the crew operated a series of experiments, including testing communications with Mission Control via the TDRS-A satellite, Bill Thornton performed a suite of experiments on the mid-deck aimed at collecting data on the SAS phenomenon.
Because the nebula's light is concentrated into a relatively small area, the surface brightness of M57 makes it fairly easy to see despite its relatively weak magnitude of +8.8. When you observe M57, remember that you are looking at the pole of a tubular shaped structure. It had been previously thought that the nebula was spherical in shape and we were seeing the Ring as the projection of the densest part. We now know that the nebula is actually shaped more like twin-lobed Dumbbell Nebula.
The Ring Nebula, the Dumbbell Nebula, and the Helix Nebula all look unusually large and possess great total apparent brightness because they are closer to us than most other planetary nebulae (they are about 1,800, 1,000, and 500 light-years away, respectively). Most others visible in amateur telescopes are several thousand light-years away and appear as small but intense disks of light. The closest planetary nebulae are near enough for us to either see (faintly) or at least photograph (easily) a range of different wavelengths of light (different colors) in them. But the rest of the planetary nebulae are far enough away that the radiance we see from them is entirely dominated by a very narrow range of blue-green wavelength.
The Dumbbell Nebula is the brightest planetary in the Messier list and one of the brightest nebulae in all the sky. With the 4 inch and a 27 mm Panoptic it is easily seen as a small, pretty bright box-shaped nebula. This object has much higher surface brightness than the Ring Nebula. Using an 8.8 mm eyepiece the apple core or Dumbbell shape is immediately seen the small aperture only shows two stars involved. Averted vision shows some of the faint outer nebulosity beyond the bright Dumbbell shape. Moving up in aperture to the Nexstar 11 and a 14 mm eyepiece shows seven stars involved, with the last two extremely faint. The outer layers of nebulosity are pretty easy on a good night averted vision makes them unmistakable. The nebula is bright, pretty large, elongated 1.5X1 with a high surface brightness core and fainter glow around it. This nebula has a faint green color. Adding the UHC or the OIII filter shows the outer nebula with much greater contrast. The filter actually makes the...
The three remaining axis systems are defined by the physics of satellite motion. The angular momentum axis is the axis through the center of mass parallel to the angulaT momentum vector. The instantaneous rotation axis is the axis about which the spacecraft is rotating at any instant Euler's Theorem (Section 12.1) establishes the existence of this axis. The angular momentum axis and the instantaneous rotation axis are not necessarily the same. For example, consider the rotation of a symmetric dumbbell, as shown in Fig. 15-1. In elementary mechanics, Assume that the dumbbell is rotating with angular velocity a about an axis through the center of mass and perpendicular to the rod joining the masses (Fig. 15-l(a)). Then, L is parallel to
Tablet PCs and UMPCs may have the advantage of screen size over PDAs, but they are heavier and more tiring to hold over long periods of time. Strapping big folk who work out with dumbbells may be able to hold a tablet PC in one hand throughout an entire observing session without giving it a second thought, but most people may feel slight discomfort after a while if they remain standing while holding the device in the hand. It would be nice if manufacturers incorporated a clip-on hand strap to the back of their tablet PCs (a bit like the soft hand cradle featured on camcorders) so that they can be held up or lowered to the side of the body without needing to grip it between
Gaussian blur, applied to observational cybersketches of the Dumbbell Nebula and parts of the landscape in and around the crater Steinheil (photo by Peter Grego). Figure 7.25. Gaussian blur, applied to observational cybersketches of the Dumbbell Nebula and parts of the landscape in and around the crater Steinheil (photo by Peter Grego).
In some large galaxy clusters one can observe paired giant ellipticals. Nicknamed dumbbell galaxies from their apparent shape, these galaxies rotate around a common center of gravity and are so close that they can be immersed in a common outer halo or envelop. Most are extremely massive systems, often tipping the scales well in excess of 1013 solar masses 216 . These pairings are not uncommon, and can be found in many dense galaxy clusters. The descriptions and technical data for a number of giant ellipticals can be found in the Messier Catalogue (M 49, M 59, M 60, M 84, M 86, M 87, M 89, and M 105) in Tables 7.1 and 7.2. Observations and data on other interesting giant ellipticals, cD, and dumbbell galaxies can be found in Tables 8.24 and 8.25.
The Dumbbell Nebula. took the first photograph of dark lines in the spectrum of a star (Vega) and in 1880 he took the first photograph of the Orion Nebula. However, he is most remembered because of the Henry Draper Catalog of stellar spectra, funded by his wife after his death as a memorial to him. ''HD'' numbers from the catalog are still widely used to identify stars. Dubhe (Alpha Ursae Majoris) One of the two bright stars of the Big Dipper in Ursa Major forming the Pointers. It is a giant K star of magnitude 1.8 with a fifth-magnitude companion that orbits around it in 44 years. They are 124 light years away. ''Dubhe'' is a short version of an Arabic name meaning ''the back of the greater bear.'' Dumbbell Nebula (M27 NGC 6853) A large planetary nebula in the constellation Vulpecula, discovered by Charles Messier in 1764. It lies 1000 light years away and is a quarter of a degree across on the sky. dust grains Small particles of matter, typically around 10-100 nm in diameter, which...
In light polluted skies, good candidates for the use of light filters instead of image intensifiers would include the large but bright Dumbbell Nebula M27 (Figure 3.5), or the Little Dumbbell Nebula M76. Other famous planetaries, such as the Owl Nebula M97, do not seem to respond well to any method from the suburbs. You will find, however, that most planetaries are small, with some notable exceptions. With light filters and even low powers, their frequent bluish glow makes them easy to separate from the surrounding stars. I do not find averted vision necessarily beneficial with most planetaries, except in cases where their dimensions are large enough that mottling or other subtle shadings can be seen. Those smaller ones which are easily visible tend to be straightforward to view, and reveal their natures readily.
H I-193 (NGC 650 1) 01 42 + 51 34, planetary nebula, 11.5, 140 X 70 , Messier 76 Little Dumbbell Barbell Cork Butterfly Nebula. Very bright, following of a double nebula. This multiple-named wonder is widely considered to be the faintest of the Messier objects and one of the most difficult to see. And yet it is visible in a 3-inch glass on a dark night and is a fascinating sight in 6-inch and larger scopes. Sweep for it just 1 NW of Persei, which sits right on the border with neighboring Andromeda. This curious object has been variously described by observers as having a rectangular, cork or peanut shape, as a double-lobed nebula, and appearing like a miniature of the famed Dumbbell Nebula (M27) in Vulpecula. And, indeed, it is all of these and more - depending on the aperture used. Note in particular Herschel's comment about a double nebula. NGC 650 is M76 itself, which he obviously recognized as such and thus it carries no H-designation. H I-193 (NGC 651) refers to the fainter half...
M27 (the dumbbell nebula) 1 5 S Widely regarded as the easiest planetary nebula to see. Through binoculars, M27 becomes visible as a rounded patch about one-third the apparent size of a full moon. Larger instruments and long-exposure photographs show the twin-lobed shape that gives rise to its popular name.
All the planetary nebulae are expanding. This can be determined from two techniques. The doppler shift of the optical spectral lines provides a measurement of the expansion velocity along the line of sight values of 20 km s (12 mi s) are typical. The increase in size of the image of a planetary nebula on photographs taken over the years shows its expansion across the line of sight. The expansion in the radial and tangential directions (if assumed to be the same) can be combined to yield the distance of the planetary nebula. The fact that the nebulae are expanding as the central stars fade means that planetary nebulae are relatively transitory objects, with lifetimes measured in tens of thousands of years. As there are approximately 10,000 planetary nebulae in our Galaxy, several must form each year. See also butterfly nebula dumbbell nebula eskimo nebula helix nebula owl nebula saturn nebula
Interesting features, triangular shape, resolved into stars in a telescope, low number of stars, looks similar to some open clusters. Dumbbell Nebula, may be the most beautiful planetary, shape visible in binoculars, more detail in a telescope, greenish color, southwestern lobe is brighter, extended faint halo requires nebula filter.
Pluto and Charon take 6.39 days to orbit each other. Charon revolves around Pluto's equatorial plane. But, like Uranus, Pluto is tipped almost on its side. This means that the orbit of Charon is tipped more than 90 degrees relative to the Sun. Meanwhile, the orbital period of 6.39 days is also the amount of time it takes each world to spin on its axis. And so, just as the Moon keeps the same face to the Earth at all times, Pluto and Charon are forever locked in a similar gravitational embrace. From the surface of Pluto, Charon never appears to move in the sky. Instead, it just hangs there, forever presenting the same face but still going through a series of Moon-like phases. The same is true of Pluto seen from Charon. One way to visualise the pair is as a giant dumbbell with different sized masses on each end, endlessly tumbling in the vastness of space. If you happened to be on the hemisphere of Pluto turned away from Charon, or vice versa, you would never even know about your...
This is a fairly close galaxy cluster that is part of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster. Its members include the giant galaxy NGC 541 (Type S0) and the dumbbell galaxy pair, NGC 545 7 185 . In the NE halo of NGC 541 is Minkowski's Object (see Table 10.4) - an extragalactic H II region galaxy fragment. This is an extremely difficult and tiny object and requires the largest sized apertures for any chance of success.
It was the first planetary nebula ever discovered. Its distance from Earth is about 1200 light years. The red and green colors originate from the emission of hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. The gas is heated and excited by the ultraviolet radiation from a star that is located in the center of the nebula (visible at the middle of the image). The cen
High power (the highest possible), in my case 504 x, reveals a most puzzling sight. The planetary looks like a dumbbell oriented north-northwest-south-southeast, with the north-northwest side being the brightest that bright section also contains a bright knot not centered on the nebula but on the northwest edge. The south-southeast part of the dumbbell is mystifying, looking like an emerging puff of smoke or an unfinished afterthought. I wondered, however, if this was nothing more than a slightly swollen disk of a dim star nearly touching the nebula. The entire dumbbell also appears to be surrounded by a dim glow, but this is so tenuous that I cannot, or was not able to confirm its existence to my satisfaction.
This month, I'm going to show you how to capture M27, the Dumbbell Nebula, which sits in the constellation ofVulpecula. We'll be using a mono-CCD camera with four different filters one each for luminance (L), (R), green (G) and blue (R) respectively. You can use filters separately in front of the camera or put them in a filter wheel to ease the task of swapping them over.
Drawing on a study conducted at Marshall Spaceflight Center in 1987, Lemke proposes an interplanetary spacecraft that would look like a huge rotating set of dumbbells. One of the spheres, which would provide the hub for the rotation, could be used as a microgravity lab or for storing equipment and supplies. The second sphere, connected by a long tether, would swing around the first. The length of the tether and the speed of rotation could be varied so that, on a journey to Mars, for example, there would be .38-G to acclimate the spacefarers, but on the return voyage rotational speed could be adjusted to i-G to prepare the crew for its return to Earth. A spacecraft with this capability would weigh only a little more than one without it Lemke estimates the weight penalty at about 10-20 percent.
Getting Started With Dumbbells
The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.