Sentinel3 Mission Objectives

The Sentinel-3 system design responds specifically to the need to deliver routine operational services to policy makers and marine and land service users in the general categories outlined in Table 1 The GMES Sentinel-3 system will enable the realisation of valuable information services to the European Union and its Member States in the frame of the GMES programme based on routine operational monitoring of the ocean and land surfaces. The Marine Core Service (MCS) Fig. 7 and the Land Monitoring Core Service (LMCS), have been consolidating a number of services whose future continuity and success depends on operational data flow from the GMES Sentinels. The Land Monitoring Core Service (LMCS) is currently being developed in the Geoland 6th Framework Programme large integrated project (www.gmes-geoland.info) and through ESA GSE projects such as Forest Monitoring (www.gmes-forest.info), Global Monitoring for Food Security

Table 1 Sentinel-3 mission required products

GMES Initial Service

S-3 Requirement

Marine and Coastal Environment sea-surface topography mesoscale circulation water quality sea-surface temperature wave height and wind sediment load and transport eutrophication sea-ice thickness ice surface temperature ocean-current forecasting water transparency wind and wave height global sea-level rise global ocean warming ocean CO2 flux land use mapping Vegetation indices forest cover mapping regional land-cover mapping drought monitoring land use mapping aerosol concentration burned scar mapping fire detection forest cover change mapping soil degradation mapping

Polar Environment monitoring

Maritime Security

Global Change Ocean

Land cover & Land use change

Forest Monitoring

Food Security early warning

Humanitarian Aid

Air Pollution (local to regional scales) Risk Management (flood and fires)

Global Change Land

Fig. 7 Role of the Marine Core Services on the end-to-end delivery of operational oceanography services (Desaubies Y et al., 2006). The Marine Core services act as integrator of the data provided by all the space and on-ground instruments delivering optimal predictions on ocean state and evolution. These predictions will be converted in customized products by specialized downstream service providers

Fig. 7 Role of the Marine Core Services on the end-to-end delivery of operational oceanography services (Desaubies Y et al., 2006). The Marine Core services act as integrator of the data provided by all the space and on-ground instruments delivering optimal predictions on ocean state and evolution. These predictions will be converted in customized products by specialized downstream service providers

(www.gmfs.info), and the disaster mitigation and humanitarian relief RESPOND (www.respond-int.org) service. LMCS is focused primarily on exhaustive highresolution European-scale land cover/land use mapping complemented by a land monitoring component based on daily land-cover mapping, vegetation characteristics and fire monitoring at continental and global scale. Taking into account the dynamics of vegetation characteristics requires a product update frequency from days to weeks to months, and comprehensive global observations with the best revisit frequency possible (especially to minimise observation contamination by clouds or high aerosol loadings).

The evolution of LMCS at European scale includes vegetation monitoring linked to Common Agricultural Policy requirements such as agro-environmental measures, and review and monitoring of EU policies (e.g. water framework directive, biodiversity strategy, common agricultural, regional policies) and also for reporting obligations under international treaties (e.g. the Kyoto Protocol), in line with national land-cover/land-use inventories in the Member States. For the LMCS the GMES Sentinel-3 observation capacity is relevant for the global-scale high-frequency revisit component (e.g. crop production monitoring and food security, and forest cover mapping and change monitoring). The associated relevant mission requirements are linked to the characterisation of land surface biophysical parameters including land cover, Leaf Area Index, fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation, and burnt areas, as well as parameters such as the Land Surface and Active Fire Temperature. Meanwhile, these global vegetation data, together with the atmospheric correction by products (e.g. aerosol optical depth), will provide critical input data for numerical weather forecasting, global climate models and in climate and greenhouse gas monitoring.

In order to meet the user needs, the Sentinel-3 satellite data will support the operational generation of a generalised suite of high-level geophysical products, including as priority:

• Ocean, Ice, Land and Inland water Surface Topography

• Sea-Surface Temperature

• Land Surface Biophysical Properties

• Land Surface Temperature

The primary goals identified above drive the design towards a mission concept, which can routinely and uninterruptedly (i.e. operationally) deliver robust products with well-characterized accuracy and confidence limits. In turn, this has led to the identification of some improvements with respect to past missions and instruments, which through their technology and data processing heritage have guided the design of the Sentinel-3 system.

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