Further Reading

An excellent, although somewhat dated treatment of early human evolution, authored by a Kenyan archeologist, is Richard E. Leakey's Origins (Dutton, New York, 1977), which was co-authored by Roger Lewin. Along with his father Louis and mother Mary, Richard Leakey contributed to our knowledge of hominid evolution in the Olduvai Gorge region of Kenya.

No wooden rafts used by the ancestors of the Aboriginal People to reach Australia have been preserved, but an excellent fictional portrayal of this migration is included in Stephen Baxter's science-fiction novel, Evolution (Ballantine, New York, 2003).

An excellent reference discussing the late prehistory and early history of humanity from 35,000 BC to the 500 AD is jacquetta Hawkes' The Atlas of Early Man (St Martin's Press, New York, 1976). Of special interest is her description of how successful migrants adapted pottery styles, architecture, etc., to conform to their new environments.

Many references have examined the sea-faring contributions of the Minoan civilization in Neolithic and Bronze Age Crete. One very readable source is Rodney Castledon's Minoans (Routledge, New York, 1991).

Perhaps more than any other group of migrants, the Polynesians may serve as models for ultimate human expansion into the galaxy. You can read about their exploits in an article by Ben R. Finney, "Voyagers into Ocean Space,'' which has been published in Interstellar Migration and the Human Experience, edited by Ben R. Finney and Eric M. jones (University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1985).

The same reference considers the expansion, and later contraction, of Viking culture in a chapter by Richard B. Lee entitled "Models of Human Colonization: !Kung, San, Greeks, and Vikings.'' The failure of Ming China and the success of fifteenth-century Portugal in initiating the Age of Exploration is also explored in this reference by Ben Finney, in a chapter entitled "The Prince and the Eunuch.''

Many sources describe the Lewis and Clark expedition and the opening of the American West. Some of these are reviewed in a paper authored by Les johnson, David Hardy, Ann Trausch, Gregory L. Matloff, Travis Taylor, and Kathleen Cutting, entitled "A Strategic Roadmap to Centauri.'' This article was published in The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, vol. 58, pp. 316-325 (2005).

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