Electromagnetic Pulse Survival Guide
Leading edge of this tide is shown in Figure 10.23, consisting of crossed electric and magnetic fields which create and re-create each other in a continuous chain of cause and effect. This electromagnetic pulse continues to move through space even where there is no longer any trace of Oersted's steady magnetic field. The fields have taken off independently, and may now be millions of miles away propagating on their own through free space.
At radio wavelengths and, for high temperatures, at optical wavelengths the continuous emission from atoms and molecules is dominated by free-free transitions of electrons in encounters with positive ions the resulting radiation is known as bremsstrahlung. According to classical theory, in one such encounter an electron emits a single electromagnetic pulse, with no oscillations in E. The Fourier spectrum of such a pulse is independent of frequency for low frequencies. Consequently, the emission coefficient jr for this process is nearly independent of frequency except for an exponential cutoff resulting from the Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. The usual formula for jr for free-free transitions, with electrons assumed to interact with ions of charge Z,e and particle density is
We have now built up an impressively consistent view of how forces operate between particles. In each case there is a force field and the interaction between the particles gives rise to the disturbance in the field. This disturbance carries energy and momentum and in a Feynman diagram is represented as a particle moving between the vertices. The electromagnetic disturbance is the photon, the strong force has the gluon and the weak force the W and Z particles. The collective name for these disturbances is exchange particles.
An alternative approach would be to put a charge on nano-probes and to accelerate them in much the same way that particle accelerators push protons to relativistic velocities. In this case an electromagnetic pulse in cavities push the charge nano-probe through cavity. There are then quadupole magnets which focus the charge particles into the next cavity. Current accelerators push a proton to 7 1000. For a hypothetic nano-bot of 1000 daltons a similar system might push it to a 7 2. For further technical improvements it is not impossible to imagine a nano-bot of some 106 daltons being pushed to a 7 2.
Long wave bands have very attractive ground wave characteristics, which are virtually unaffected by the ionosphere and nuclear-induced Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). The United States built the Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN), a high power VLF communication system operating at 150-175 kHz, and designed to provide survivable connectivity to bomber and tanker bases. The system has been placed in a sustainment mode (circa 2000), but is being considered for other non-military purposes, such as inland navigation.
A light wave is an electromagnetic disturbance consisting of rapidly varying electric and magnetic effects. Light waves transport energy from accelerating electric charges in stars (the source) to electric charges in the retina of your eye (the receiver) (Figure 2.1). You become aware of that energy when you see starlight.
Unlike all MCF concepts seen so far, this approach to MCF is unsteady. The basic working principle of the DPF rocket is shown on the left of Figure 8.14. The fuel, DT or other, is injected inside the reactor chamber and is compressed by pulsed electromagnetic waves. Their effect on the newly formed and longitudinally accelerated plasma is to constrict the B field lines in the tangential direction (in cylindrical coordinates the tangential angle is 0). This unsteady plasma effect is called 0 pinch'' it can compress plasma to very high density, although for short times, corresponding to the duration of the electromagnetic pulse. There is some experimental evidence hinting that in this unsteady mode plasma ignition may be achieved with DPF devices much smaller than steady-state MCF reactors.
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