G

G2 stars, 262

Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich, first man in space, 135 Galactic bulge, Milky Way,

304-305, 311-313 Galactic center Milky Way, 310 region, 311 Galactic disk, Milky Way,

305, 311, 314 Galactic halo, 306, 313 galaxies, 304, 310, 317-318 active, 335 Andromeda, 66, 307, 310

barred-spiral, 319 clusters, 326 dark halo, 314 elliptical, 319-320 irregular, 321 Local Group, 326 measuring intergalactic distances, 325 measuring mass, 323

measuring size, 307 Milky Way, 303-305 observing, 307 radio, 336 redshifting, 360 rotation curve, 324 Seyfert, 335 spiral, 315, 319 superclusters, 327 typical masses for types, 324

Whirlpool, 322 Galilean moons, Jupiter, 226 Galileo

Jupiter probe, 142 lunar observations, 151 Saturn observations, 222 space probe, Jupiter observations, 215 Web site, 141 Galileo Galilei, 57 Gamma Ray Observatory,

129 gamma rays astronomy, 129 wavelength, 106 Gamow, George, 361 Ganymede, Jupiter's moon,

221, 225-228 gaps in Saturn rings, 225 Gemini (constellation), 15 Gemini missions, 138 Geminid meteor shower, 126, 188 general relativity, 282 genes, 346

geocentric model of universe, 26, 42 Georgium Sidus, 210 giant HII regions, 295 giant molecular clouds,

297 giants, 263 gibbous moon, 5 Glenn Jr., John H., 138

globular clusters, 306, 310,

324 gnomons, 20

go-to computer controller, 93

Goddard, Robert Hutchings, early rocket studies, 132 Gold, Thomas, 361 good seeing, telescopes, 76 gravitational energy, 238 gravitational redshift, 284 gravity, 376 moon, 153-155 Newton's theories, 60 Great Dark Spot, Neptune, 216-218 Great Red Spot, Jupiter,

213, 216 Great Square (asterism), 14 Greek astronomy, 25 Green Bank Telescope, 125 Greenwich Observatory, prime meridian, 8

H-R diagrams

(Hertzsprung-Russell), 263 H1 line, 293 H11 regions, 294 habitable zone, 352 Hale telescope, 74 Halley's Comet, 183 Halley, Edmund, 61 Hawking, Steven, 283 heavy isotopes, 162 heliocentric solar system,

Aristarchus, 26 heliocentric solar system model, Copernicus, 49-51 helioseismology, 250 heliostatic solar system model, 52 helium, 239, 248, 366 helium flash, 270

Herschel, reflecting telescopes, 72 Herschel, Caroline, 209 Herschel, William, 210, 304

Hertsprung, Ejnar, 263 hertz, frequency measurement, 68 Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf, 68 Hewish, Anthony, 277 high-frequency radiation, 103

high-altitude balloons, 134 High-Energy Astronomy

Observatory, 129 high-mass stars, evolution and photodisintegration, 274

highlands, moon, 157 historical overviews astronomy, 17 solar system, 162 homogeneity of universe, 363

horizon problem, Big Bang theory, 375 hours, right ascension measurement, 8 Hoyle, Fred, 361 Hubble Space Telescope, 78, 129

Hubble's constant, 328 Hubble's Law, 328 Hubble, Edwin, 310, 318 human eyes, visible wavelength range, 106 Huygens, Christian, 144, 222

Hyades (asterism), 16 hydrogen, 239, 248 electrons, 113 isotopes, 163 photons, spectral emission, 113 protons, 113 spectral lines, 113

Iapetus, Saturn's moon, 230

Ida, asteroid, 179 imaging techniques, radio astronomy, 127 impact theory of moon origin, 155 inertia, 59

inflationary epoch, 377 infrared astronomy, 129 inner mantle, moon, 159 instructions, telescopes, 88 intelligence, extraterrestrial life, 353 interference, radio, 118 interferometers, 76, 123 intergalactic distances, measuring, 325 interior composition of jovian planets, 219 International Astronomical

Union, 233 interstellar matter, 290 dust, 291 gas, 292-293 reddening, 291 intrinsic variables, 308 invention of telescopes, 69 inverse frequency/wavelength relationship, 107 inverse-square law, 61 Io, Jupiter's moon, 215,

219, 225-227 ion tail, comets, 182 IRAS (Infrared Astronomy

Satellite), 129 irregular galaxies, 321-324 Ishtar Terra, Venus, 195 Isidorus of Seville, 47 isotopes, 162-163 isotropy of universe, 363

J2000 coordinates, 38 Jansky, Karl, 118 jet engines, 133 Johann Müller, see

Regiomontanus, 49 jovian planets, 169, 177, 206

atmosphere, 209 cores, 208 density, 208 Jupiter, 206 rotation rates, 217 size, 207 statistics, 206 Jupiter, 206-207 atmosphere, 217 Comet Shoemaker-Levy

9 collision, 214 differential rotation, 215 equatorial belts, 213 equatorial zone, 213 Galilean moons, 226 Great Red Spot, 213, 216 interior composition, 219

magnetosphere, 219 moons, 58

Callisto, 225-228 Europa, 225-228 Ganymede, 225-228 Io, 215, 219, 225-227 observing, 212 polar regions, 213 relation to Chinese zodiac, 19 rotation, 212 temperate belts, 213 temperature, 218 troposphere, 217 winds, 217 zonal flow, 216 Jy (Jansky ), radio astronomy unit, 120

Kant, Immanuel, nebular contraction, 165 Keck telescopes, 74 Kelvin temperature scale, 191

Kepler, laws of planetary motion, 55 Kepler's First Law, 55 Kepler's Second Law, 56 Kepler, Johannes, 53-54 Krebs, Nikolaus, De Docta

Ignorantia, 50 Kuiper Belt, 168 comets, 164 short-period comets, 182

Lagoon Nebula, 294 Laplace, Pierre-Simon, conservation of angular momentum, 165 Large Magellanic Cloud,

321 latitude celestial sphere, 8 See also declination Law of Universal

Gravitation, Newton, 61 laws of motion, Newton, 59

laws of planetary motion,

Kepler, 55 leading faces, tidally locked moons, 230 Leavitt, Henrietta Swan,

261, 309 lenses chromatic aberration, 70 focal length, 70 telescopes, 69-70 Leo, constellation, 13

Leonid meteor shower, 188

Leverrier, Jean Joseph, 211 life expectancies of stars, 265

libration, moon, 36 life carbon-based, 346 chemistry, 344-346 civilizations, 353 intelligence, 353 requirements, 344 search for life in universe, 349 search for life on Mars, 347

life cycle of stars, 268 light amplitude, 103 colors, 107 frequency, 103 photons, 101 speed, 66

speed of light, 68, 105 transmission, 105 visible light, 68 wavelength, 103 light-years, 66, 175 Little Dipper, 12 Local Group, 326 Local Supercluster, 327 long-period comets, 181-182 longitude, celestial sphere, 8 low-light adjustments, telescopes, 98-99 Lowell, Percival, 199, 232 luminosity, 239-240, 253,

259, 324 Luna series moon probes,

137 lunar cycle, 6 lunar eclipses, 41 lunar exploration, 137-139 Lunar Module, Apollo missions, 138

lunar observations,

151-152 Lunar Orbiter series moon probes, 138 lunar phases, 34-37 Lyra (constellation), 13 Lyrid meteor shower, 187

Magellan Venus probes, 141

Magellanic clouds, 309 magnetic fields, charged particles, 104 magnetosphere, 215, 219 magnification binoculars, 82-84 telescopes, 82-84, 87 magnitude, stars, 259 main body, comets, 181 main sequence, 264 Maksutov-Cassegrain telescopes, 91-92 man in the moon, 5 manned space missions,

135 mantle moon, 157 planets, 158 Mare Crisium, moon, 152 Mare Imbrium, moon, 152 Mare Tranquilitatis, moon, 152

marginally bound universe, 370 maria, moon, 151, 157 Mariner probes, 140 Markab (star), 14 marking time, 32 Mars, 198 canals, 199 canyons, 202 core, 201

dry river beds, 202 dunes, 201

Face on Mars, 348 Mariner probes, 140 moons, Deimos and

Phobos, 203 observing, 202 Olympus Mons volcano, 201

outflow channels, 202 red color, 200 runoff channels, 202 search for life, 347 seasons, 198 temperature, 198 Valles Marineris, 202 volcanoes, 201 Mars Global Surveyor, 142, 347

Mars Observer probe, 142 Mars Pathfinder probe, 143,

347 mass, 59

galaxies, measuring, 323 Milky Way, 314 Neptune, 208 planets, 176 spectrometer, 163 stars, 264 sun, 239 matter, domination in universe, 365 Mauna Kea Observatory,

Keck telescopes, 74 Maunder, Annie Russel, 246

Maury, Antonia, 263 Maxwell, James Clerk, 104, 223

Mayan astronomy, 24 Meade Model 395, amateur refracting telescopes, 85 Meade Model 4500, amateur reflector telescopes, 86

measurements angular separation and size, 10

galaxies, 307 objects in sky, 9-10 solar system, A.U.s, 175 stars (distances), triangulation, 254-255 medium of light transmission, ether, 104 Mercury, 192

distance from sun, 175 Mariner probes, 140 missions, 138 observing, 193 rotation, 193-194, 198 synchronous orbit, 193 temperature range, 192 Messier Catalog, 185, 270,

294, 401, 404-406 Messier, Charles, 294 meteor showers, detecting via FM radio, 126 meteorites, 186 meteoroids, 158, 174, 186 meteors, 186 ejecta, 159

showers, Geminid and Perseid, 126 meters, wavelength measurement, 68 micrometeoroids, 186 Milk Dipper (asterism), 14 Milky Way, 303-305 color, 310 dark halo, 315 diameter, 310 evolution, 313 Galactic bulge, 305,

311-313 Galactic center, 310-312 Galactic center region, 311

Galactic disk, 305, 311, 314

Galactic halo, 313 globular clusters, 306 mass, 314 rotation, 311

Miller, Stanley, 347 Miller-Urey Experiment, 347

millimeter interferometers, 296

millimeter telescopes, 296 Mimas, Saturn's moon, 230 minor planets, 174 minutes, right ascension measurement, 8 Miranda, Uranus' moon,

211, 231 Mirfak (star), 15 mirrors, telescopes, 70 months, sidereal and synodic months, 37 moon, 149

Apennine Mountains, 153

craters, 35, 158-159 crescent moon, 5 crust, 157-159 eclipses, 41 exploration, 137, 149 American, 137 Apollo lunar missions,

138 Russian, 137 far side, 35

first landing, Apollo 11, 139

first quarter, 34 full, 5, 10, 34 gibbous moon, 5 gravity, 153-155 highlands, 157 inner mantle, 159 length of day, 155 libration, 36 man in the moon, 5 mantle, 157 Mare Crisium, 152 Mare Imbrium, 152 Mare Tranquilitatis, 152 maria, 151, 157 mountains, 151

new moon, 5 observations, 151-152 Oceanus Procellarum,

152 origins, 154 outer mantle, 159 phases, 34 quarter moon, 5 rotation, 36 seismic activity, 159 size in sky, 150 statistics, 153 synchronous orbit, 154 synodic month, 37 terminator, day/night separator, 151 third quarter, 34 tidal bulges, 155-156 tracking daily motion,

151 waning, 5

waning crescent and gibbous, 34 waxing, 5

waxing crescent and gibbous, 34 moons, 174, 178 Ganymede, 221 Jupiter, 58

Callisto, 225-228 Europa, 221, 225-228 Ganymede, 225-228 Io, 215, 219, 225-227 Neptune, Triton, 225, 229

Pluto, Charon, 233 Roche limit, 223 Saturn

Iapetus, 230 Mimas, 230 Titan, 212, 221, 225, 229

tidal locking, 230 Uranus

Ariel, 211, 231 Miranda, 211, 231

Oberon, 211-212, 231 Titania, 211-212, 231 Umbriel, 211, 231 Mount Wilson Observatory, largest reflecting telescope, 72 mountains, moon, 151 mounts binoculars, 83 telescopes, 87, 93-94

nanometers, 69, 106 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, radio telescopes, 122 Native American astronomy, 24 neap tides, 156 nebulae, 72, 164, 271 Dumbbell Nebula, 270 emission nebulae, 294 Ring Nebula, 270 nebular contraction,

Immanuel Kant, 165 nebulas

Eagle Nebula, 294 emission nebulas, 294 giant molecular clouds, 297

Lagoon Nebula, 294 spiral nebulae, 310 Neptune, 208 atmosphere, 218 density, 208 Great Dark Spot, 216-218 interior composition, 219

magnetosphere, 219 mass, 208

moons, Triton, 225, 229 observing, 211 rings, 225 volume, 208

neutrinos, 248, 372 neutrons, 104

degenerate neutrons, 280 stars, 277 new moons, 5, 34 Newton gravity, 60

inverse-square law, 61 Law of Universal Gravitation, 61 laws of motion, 59 Newton, Isaac, 59 nm (nanometers), 106 nonimaging techniques, radio astronomy, 127 north celestial pole, 7 equatorial belt, Jupiter, 213

temperature belt, Jupiter, 213 North Star (Polaris), 12 Northern Cross (asterism), 14

Northern Lights, 244 northern sky, constellations, 11 novas, 53, 273 nuclear bulge, 304 nuclear fission, 248 nuclear fusion, 248 nucleotide bases, 346

Oberon, Uranus' moon,

211-212, 231 Oberth, Hermann, early rocket studies, 132 observing black holes, 286 comets, 184 galaxies, 307

Jupiter, 212 Mars, 202 Mercury, 193 moon, 152 Neptune, 211 Saturn, 212 sunspots, 247 supernovae, 275 Uranus, 211 Venus, 196 Oceanus Procellarum, moon, 152 Olympus Mons volcano,

Mars, 201 On Stellar Motion, al-

Battani, 48 Oort Cloud, 168 comets, 164

long-period comets, 182 Oort, Jan, 124 opacity of Earth's atmosphere, 109 open universe, 374 optical photons, 101 optical window, 109 orbital period, 58, 265 orbital planes, planets, 175 orbits, 135 Pluto, 232 retrograde, 178 synchronous orbit, 154 origins

Big Bang, 364 moon, 154 planets, 166 solar system, 162 Orion (constellation), 15 Orion's Belt (asterism), 15 Orionid meteor shower, 188

OSO (Orbiting Solar Observatory), 137 outer mantle, moon, 159 outflow channels, Mars, 202

Pallas (asteroid), 174 parallax, 256 parsecs, 255 partial eclipses, 242 peak electromagnetic intensity, temperature, 110

Pegasus (constellation), 14 penumbra, 245 Penzias, Arno, 361 Perseid meteor shower,

126, 187 Perseus (constellation), 15 phases of the moon, 6, 34 phases of Venus, 58 Phobos, Martian moon, 203

photodisintegration, 274 photography, telescope seeing, 76 photons, 101

hydrogen spectral emission, 113 optical photons, 101 speed of light, 105 photosphere, sun, 240 Piccard, Auguste, high-altitude balloons, 134 Pioneer planetary probes, 141

pioneers of space technology, 132 planetary nebulae, 271 planetary position calculator, 210 planetary probes, 140 Cassini-Huygens Saturn/Titan mission, 143 Galileo, 142 Magellan, 141 Mariner, 140

Mars Global Surveyor, 142 Mars Observer, 142

Mars Pathfinder, 143 Pioneer, 141 Ulysses, 142 planetary systems, detecting, 352 planetesimals, 168 planetoids, 174 planets, 7, 42

accretion, 166-168 altitude, 210 angular momentum, 165

average density, 176 azimuth, 210 colored filters, observing, 223 conjunctions, 18 core, 158 craters, 159 crust, 158 declination, 210 differential rotation, 215 extrasolar, detecting,

351-352 jovian, 169, 177, 206 atmosphere, 209 cores, 208 density, 208 Jupiter, 206 size, 207 magnetosphere, 215 mantle, 158 mass, 176 moons, 174, 178 orbital plane, 175 origins, 166 Pluto, 232 radius, 176, 208 right ascension, 210 statistics, 176 terrestrial, Mercury, 192 terminator, day/night separator, 151

terrestrial, 169, 177, 190 Earth, 197 Mars, 198 Venus, 195 volume, 208 plate tectonics, 197 Pleiades (star cluster), 16 Pluto, 222, 232 Charon, 233 distance from sun, 175 orbit, 232 polar regions, Jupiter, 213 Polaris (North Star), 12 pollution, 96-97 Pollux (star), 15 positrons, 364 precession of the equinoxes, 37 prime meridian, 8 prime-focus reflectors, detector, 74 primordial synthesis, 366 Principia, Isaac Newton, 59 probes, planetary, 140 prograde motion, 42 prominences, 244-247 proper motion, stars, 257 proportionality of frequency/wavelength, 106 proportionality of peak wavelength emission, Wien's law, 111 protons, 104, 113 protoplanets, 165, 168 protostars, 298 protosuns, 166 Proxima Centauri, 265 Ptolemy

Almagest, 44, 48 constellations, 11 deferents, 43 epicycles, 43 pulsars, 277

pulsating variables, 308

pyramids, astronomical significance, 22 Pythagoras, Earth as globe, 25

Quadrantid meteor shower, 188 quarks, 104 quarter moon, 5 quasars, 332 flickering, 333 sources of fuel, 334

radial velocity, stars, 258 radiation electromagnetic, 66, 102 black-body curves, 110 colors, 107 proportionality of frequency/ wavelength, 106 transmission, 104-105 wavelength, 106 waves, 102 high frequency, 103 temperature relationship, Stefan's law, 112 radiation zone, sun, 249 radio astronomy, 117 amateur level, 126 basic measurement unit, Jy (Jansky ), 120 FM-based, 126 Grote Reber, 120 imaging techniques, 127 Karl Jansky, 118 nonimaging techniques, 127

objects observed, 124 SETI project, 128

radio emission, 337 radio galaxies, 336 radio interference, 118 radio interferometers, 76,

122-123 radio jets, 336 radio lobes, 336 radio telescopes, 121 angular resolution, 122 Arecibo, 122 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 122 receiver horn, 121 size advantages, 121 radio waves, wavelength, 106

radio window, atmosphere, 109

radio-frequency beacons,

SETI project, 356 Radio-Sky Publishing Web site, radio astronomy data, 126 radioactive decay, 162-163 radius, 208 planets, 176 stars, 253 sun, 239 Ranger series moon probes, 137

reading spectral lines, temperature, 113 Reber, Grote, 120 receiver horns, radio telescopes, 121 red color of Mars, 200 red dwarfs, 264 red giants, 264, 269-270 red light, frequency and wavelength, 107 red supergiants, Betelgeuse, 270

redshifting, 258, 360 cosmological redshift,

369 quasars, 333 reflecting telescopes, 71 Cassegrain focus, 73 concave mirrors, 72 coudé-focus, 73 design differences, 73 Schmidt-Cassegrain, 74 spherical aberration, 74 reflector telescopes, 86, 90 refracting telescopes, 70,

85, 89-90 Regiomontanus, ephemerides, 50 Regulus (star), 13 relativity, 282 requirements for life, 344 resolution, 75, 89 retrograde motion, 42 retrograde orbit, 178 retrograde rotation Uranus, 207 Venus, 190, 195 rich-field telescopes, 90 Rigel (star), 15, 265 right ascension planets, 210 zero mark, 38 rigid rotators, 216 Ring Nebula, 270 ringlets (Saturn), 224 rings

Neptune, 225 Saturn, 222

A, B, and C (statistics), 222 composition, 223 D, E, and F (statistics),

224 F ring, 225

F ring, shepherd satellites, 225 gaps, 225 origins, 223 ringlets, 224

statistics of those visible from Earth, 222 statistics of those visible from Voyager probes, 224 Voyager probes, 224 Uranus, 225 Roche limit, moons, 223 Roche, Edouard, 223 rockets engines, 133 Saturn V, 138 sounding rockets, 134 staged rockets, 135 V-1 rocket, 133 V-2 rocket, 133 wartime developments, 133

ROSAT (Röntgen Satellite),

129 rotation celestial sphere, 7 differential, 216 Earth, 33

jovian rotation rates,

217 Jupiter, 212 Mercury, 193-194, 198 Milky Way, 311 moon, 36

Uranus, retrograde, 207 Venus, retrograde, 195 rotation curves, galaxies, 324

rotational axis, Earth, 39 RR Lyra variables, 308 runoff channels, Mars, 202 Russell, Henry Norris, 263 Russian moon exploration, 137

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment