A full understanding of black holes and the phenomena associated with them requires knowledge of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Einstein's most famous works were his two relativity theories, special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity dealt with the ultimate speed limit, the speed of light. And general relativity is a theory of gravity. General relativity gives a more complete description of gravity's effects, and can explain some anomalies that Newtonian mechanics cannot. Newtonian mechanics is really a special case of the more encompassing general relativity.
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