S

Sagan, Carl, 352 Sagittarius (constellation),

14, 312 Saiph (star), 15 sand dunes, Mars, 201 SARA (Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers), 125-127 Saros, 19 satellites

Explorer series, 136 Sputnik I, 135 Saturn, 207

atmosphere, 218 Cassini division,

222-224 Cassini, Gian Domenico, Cassini division, 222 cloud layer, 218 Encke division, 222 Galileo observations, 222

Huygens, Christian, observations, 222 interior composition, 219

magnetosphere, 219 Maxwell, James Clerk, ring observations, 223 moons

Iapetus, 230 Mimas, 230 Titan, 212, 225, 229 observing, 212 rings, 222

A, B, and C (statistics), 222 composition, 223 D, E, and F (statistics),

224 F ring, 225

F ring, shepherd satellites, 225

gaps, 225 origins, 223 ringlets, 224 statistics of those visible from Earth, 222 statistics of those visible from Voyager probes, 224 Voyager probes, 224 Roche limit, 223 Saturn V rockets, 138 Schiaparelli, Giovanni, Mercury observations, 193

Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, 74, 90-91 Schwabe, Heinrich, 246 Schwarzschild radius, black holes, 282 Scorpius (constellation), 14 Sea of Tranquility, moon,

152 search for life Mars, 347 universe, 349 seasons, 39

fall, star visibility, 14 Mars, 198

summer, star visibility, 13

winter, star visibility, 15 second law of motion, Newton, 59 seconds, right ascension measurement, 8 seeing, disks and telescopes, 76 seismic activity, moon, 159 semi-major axis of orbit, 176

SETI, (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence), 128, 350, 355-356 [email protected] project, 128 Seyfert galaxies, 335 Shapley, Harlow, 306, 310

shell hydrogen burning, 269

Shephard, Alan B., first

American in space, 137 shepherd satellites (Saturn

F ring), 225 Shoemaker-Levy 9 (comet), 223

shooting stars, 186 shopping binoculars, 82-84 telescopes, 82-84, 89 amateur reflector telescopes, 86 amateur refracting telescopes, 85 costs, 87-89 Dobsonian, 92-93 Maksutov-Cassegrain,

91-92 reflector, 90 refractor, 89-90 rich-field, 90 Schmidt-Cassegrain, 90-91 short-period comets, 181-182 Sickle, asterism, 13 sidereal days, 33 sidereal months, 37 sidereal periods, 176 sidereal years, 37 singularities, 285 Sirius (star), 15 sister theory of moon origin, 154 size advantages, radio telescopes, 121 size jovian planets, 207 solar system, 175 Skylab, 145

Small Magellanic Cloud, 322

solar constant, 239 solar cycles, 246

solar days, 33 solar eclipses, 19, 41 Anaxagoras, 26 umbra, 242 solar flares, 128, 244-247 solar nebula condensation theory, 166

conservation of angular momentum, 165 solar system age, 171

asteroids, 174, 178 comets, 181 death, 171

heliocentric model, 51 historical overview, 162 jovian planets, 169 measurements, A.U.s, 175

orbits of planets, 164 origins, 162 planetary rotation, 164 planets moons, 174, 178 origins, 166 Pluto, distance from sun, 175 size, 175 sun, 176

terrestrial planets, 169 solar wind, 182, 243 solstices, 23, 39 Sothis. See Sirius sounding rockets, 134 south celestial pole, 7 south equatorial belt, Jupiter, 213 south temperate belt, Jupiter, 213 Southern Lights, 244 southern sky, constellations, 11 Space Age, birth, 135 space exploration, 135 Space Shuttle missions, 144

space stations, 144-145 space technology, early pioneers, 132 space walks, 136 special relativity, 282 spectra, stars, 261 spectral classification, 262 spectral emission, hydrogen photons, 113 spectral lines hydrogen, 113 molecular rotation/vibration, 114 spectroscopes, 112 spectroscopic binaries,

264-265 spectrums electromagnetic radiation, 107 emission lines, 113 temperature, 112 white light, 113 speed of light, 66, 105 spherical aberration, reflecting telescopes, 74 Spica (star), 13 spicules, 241

spiral arms, spiral galaxies, 323

spiral density waves,

322-323 spiral galaxies, 315, 319 spiral density waves, 322 typical mass, 324 spiral nebulae, 310, 317 spring equinox. See vernal equinox spring tides, 156 Sputnik I, 135 staged rockets, 135 standard candles, 325-326 standard model of cosmology, 360 standard solar model, 249 stars absolute brightness, 259 Alberio, 260

Aldebaran, 16, 270 Alpha Centauri, 14, 256 Alpheratz, 14 Altair, 14

angular velocity, 257 Antares, 14

apparent brightness, 259 Arcturus, 13, 270 Bellatrix, 15 Beta Cygni, 260 Betelgeuse, 8, 15, 252, 270

binary stars, 264 black dwarfs, 272 brown dwarfs, 299 Capella, 15 Castor, 15

Cepheid variables, 261 charts, 13 circumpolar, 22 classes, 262 clusters, 16, 299 core hydrogen burning, 268 Deneb, 14 Deneb Algiedi, 15 dwarf stars, 263 Enif, 14 formation, 297 giants, 263 habitable zone, 352 helium flash, 270 high-mass, evolution and photodisintegration, 274 life expectancies, 265 life cycle, 268 luminosity, 253, 259 magnitude, 259 Markab, 14 mass, 264

measuring distances, triangulation, 254-255 Mirfak, 15 neutron stars, 277 novas, 273 orbital period, 265

planetary nebulae, 271 Pollux, 15 proper motion, 257 protostars, 298 Proxima Centauri, 265 pulsars, 277 radial velocity, 258 radius, 253 red dwarfs, 264 red giants, 264, 269 Regulus, 13 Rigel, 15, 265 Saiph, 15

shell hydrogen burning, 269

sidereal days, 33 Sirius, 15 spectra, 261 spectral classification, 262 Spica, 13 sun, 251

supergiants, 263, 269 supernovas, core-

collapse, 275 temperature, 260 transverse velocity, 257 variable, 308 Vega, 13 velocity, 258 visible in fall, 14 visible in summer, 13 visible in winter, 15 white dwarfs, 264, 272 statistics jovian planets, 206 moon, 153 planets, 176 Saturn rings visible from Earth, 222

visible from Voyager probes, 224 sun, 239

terrestrial planets, 190 steady state theory, 361 Stefan's law, 112, 253

stellar movement, 257 stellar occultation, 225 stellar parallax, 256 stellar remnant black holes, 286 stellar spectra, classes, 262 Stonehenge, 23 strong nuclear force, 376 summer, star visibility, 13 summer solstice, 23, 39 Summer Triangle, 13 sun, 176, 238 apogee, 48 chromosphere, 241 component elements, 239

convection zone, 249 core, 249 corona, 241 eclipses, 19, 41 ecliptic, 11, 39 luminosity, 239-240 mass, 239 photosphere, 240 prominences, 244, 247 radiation zone, 249 radius, 239 solar constant, 239 solar wind, 243 spicules, 241 statistics, 239 temperature, 239 transition zone, 241 sunspots, 57, 244, 247 superclusters, 327 supergiants, 263, 269 superluminal motion, 337 supermassive black holes,

286, 338 supernovas core-collapse, 275 observing, 275 Type I, measuring inter-galactic distances, 326 surface pressure, Venus, 197

Surveyor lunar probes, 138 synchronous orbits, 154, 193

synchrotron emission, 337 synchrotron radiation, 338 synodic month, 37

tail, comets, 181 Taurus (constellation), 16 Teapot (asterism), 14 telescopes, 82-84. See also amateur telescopes angular resolution, 75 astrophotography, 95-96 Beck Telescopes, 87 catadioptric, 90-91 costs, 87-89 Dobsonians, 92 Maksutov-Cassegrain,

reflector, 90 refractor, 90 rich-field telescopes,

Schmidt-Cassegrain,

Dobsonian, 92-93 early usage, 57 eyepiece lens, 70 eyepieces, 88 field of view, 84 finderscopes, 88, 97-98 focus, 70 instructions, 88 invention, 69 lenses, 69-70 low-light adjustments,

98-99 magnification, 87 Maksutov-Cassegrain,

91-92 mirrors, 70 mounts, 93-94 pollution, 96-97

radio telescopes, 121 reflecting, 71, 86, 90 Cassegrain focus, 73 design differences, 73 Schmidt-Cassegrain, 74

spherical aberration, 74

refracting, 70, 85, 89-90 resolution, 75, 89 resolving power, 75 rich-field, 90 Schmidt-Cassegrain,

90-91 seeing, 76

shopping tips, 87-89 Dobsonian telescopes,

92-93 Maksutov-Cassegrain telescopes, 91-92 reflector telescopes, 90

refractor telescopes,

89-90 rich-field telescopes, 90

Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, 90-91 tripods, 93-94 using, 94-95, 98 viewing, 99 temperature, 110 belts, Jupiter, 213 Celsius (Centigrade)

scale, 191 cosmic background radiation, 362 Fahrenheit scale, 191 Jupiter, 218 Kelvin scale, 191 Mars, 198 Mercury, 194 radiation relationship,

Stefan's law, 112 stars, 260 sun, 239

terrestrial planets, Mercury, 192

Tereshkova, Valentina V., first woman in space, 138 terminator, day/night separator, 151 terrestrial planets, 169, 177, 190 Earth, 197 Mars, 198 statistics, 190 Venus, 195 theory of general relativity, 282

thermal emission, 337 thermal energy, 238 third law of motion,

Newton, 60 third quarter moon, 34 thought experiments, 284 three laws of motion,

Newton, 59 tidal bulges, 155-156 tidally locked moons, 230 Tietz, Johann Daniel, 209 time dilation, 285 time tracking, 32 tips, shopping binoculars and telescopes, 82-84 telescopes, 87-93 Titan, Saturn's moon, 212,

221, 225, 229 Titania, Uranus' moon,

211-212, 231 Titius, Johann Daniel, 209 Tombaugh, Clyde, 232 total eclipses, 242 tracking daily lunar motion, 151 tracking time, 32 trailing faces, tidally locked moons, 230 transition zone, sun, 241 transmission of electromagnetic radiation, 104-105

transparency of radiation in universe, 364 transverse velocity, stars, 257

triangulation, distances of stars, 254-255 tripods, telescopes, 93-94 Tritium, 163 Triton, Neptune's moon,

225, 229 tropical year, 37 troposphere, Jupiter, 217 troughs wavelength, 68 waves, 103 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich, early rocket studies, 132 Tully-Fisher relation, 325 Type I supernovas, measuring intergalactic distances, 326, 371

U.S. Naval Observatory, national timekeeper, 31 ultracompact HII regions, 295

ultraviolet astronomy, 129 Ulysses space probe, 142 umbra, 242

Umbriel, Uranus' moon,

211, 231 unbounded universe, 370 universe atoms, creation, 366 bound, 370 closed, 374 cosmological redshift, 370

critical density, 370-372 flat, 374

inflationary epoch, 377 marginally bound, 370

matter domination, 365 open, 374

transparency of radiation, 364 unbounded, 370 Uranographia, Al-Sûfi, 48 Uranus atmosphere, 218 interior composition, 219

magnetosphere, 219 moons

Ariel, 211, 231 Miranda, 211, 231 Oberon, 211-212, 231 Titania, 211-212, 231 Umbriel, 211, 231 observing, 211 retrograde rotation, 207 rings, 225 Urey, Harold, 347 URLs. See Web sites Ursa Major, constellation, 12

Ursa Minor, constellation, 12

using telescopes, 94-95, 98

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