Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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Power and Energy Management Software

Although the power and energy management software (PEM) is part of the software system, it is dedicated to the EPS performance, health monitoring, control, and protection. In case of emergencies, or during planned mission operations, PEMS sheds loads in a preset sequence if and when the battery state of charge cannot support all loads. The battery telemetry consists of the battery voltage, current, temperature, individual cell voltages and the internal pressures of selected cells. Some of these telemetry readings also go to PEMS.

Scientific Principle Energy Conservation

Consider now the conservation of energy, well known as the most important principle of science. That principle is not a fact, but an extrapolation from facts, accepted as a basic truth because it has proved to be both fully general and capable of surviving the most difficult crises of science.25 Scientists came close to a nervous breakdown when the black-body problem resulted in the ultraviolet catastrophe around 1880, and the energy conservation principle ran into apparently insurmountable difficulties. A body that is capable of absorbing any electromagnetic radiation is called black. Although it is an idealization, a small window in an oven closely approximates this definition. Now, the laws of physics predict that a black body must also emit electromagnetic radiation, with a spectrum i.e., an intensity distribution versus wavelength (color) that only depends on its temperature. Thus, the light emitted by a heated oven is in a one-to-one correspondence to its temperature, and in...

Scientific Rationale of the Project

While in some cases soft excesses in clusters can be explained as the low-energy extension of the non-thermal hard X-ray components mentioned above, there is evidence that a part may also be due to thermal emission from the WHIM. The signal seen near clusters then originates in the densest and hottest parts of the WHIM filaments, where the accelerating force of the clusters is highest and heating is strongest. A strong component of this emission is line radiation from highly ionised oxygen ions, and the role of this line emission and its observational evidence will be reviewed.

XMMNewton and Chandra Results High Resolution Spectra

The RGS gratings on XMM-Newton (and, to a lesser extent, the gratings on Chandra) have provided high resolution X-ray spectra of a sample of cooling core clusters. In this regard, the low energy grating spectra are particularly important. In the standard cooling flow model without reheating, all of the gas which cools from higher temperatures should continue to cool out of the X-ray band. As the gas cools below 107 K, heavy elements will recombine and produce very strong line emission. One particularly strong set of lines produced at lower temperature come from Fe XVII (or Fe+16) these lines mainly lie below 1 keV in the spectrum. The XMM-Newton spectra showed that Fe XVII and other low ionization lines were missing from the spectra of cluster cooling cores at the level predicted by the standard cooling flow model without reheating (e.g., 35 ), and this result was confirmed with Chandra.

Definition of Common Observables

Apart of its dependence on the zenith angle 6 and azimuthal angle , this quantity also depends on the energy, E, and at low energy on the time, t. The time dependence is discussed in Section 1.8 and Chapter 6. Frequently, directional intensity is simply called intensity. Either the total intensity integrated over all energies, 7,(0, E,t), or the differential intensity, Figure 1.12 Cascade shower Schematic representation of particle production in the atmosphere. Shown is a moderately energetic hadronic interaction of a primary cosmic ray proton with the nucleus of an atmospheric constituent at high altitude that leads to a small hadron cascade. In subsequent collisions of low energy secondaries with atmospheric target nuclei, nuclear excitation and evaporation of target nuclei may occur. Unstable particles are subject to decay or interaction, as indicated, and electrons and photons undergo bremsstrahlung and pair production, respectively. For completeness neutrinos resulting from the...

ACE Advanced Composition Explorer

A NASA satellite designed to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of matter from several different sources, including the solar corona and the interstellar medium. ACE was placed in a halo orbit around the first Lagrangian point (L1) of the Earth-Sun system, about 1.4 million km from Earth. It carries six high-resolution sensors and three monitoring instruments for sampling low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles with a collecting power 10 to 1,000 times greater than previous experiments. The spacecraft can give about an hour's advance warning of geomagnetic storms that might overload power grids, disrupt communications, and pose a hazard to astronauts.

Fe Filtered Berm Spectrum

Today we claim to possess a complete theory of everything-QCD (quantum chromodynamics). Yet this theory cannot calculate anything in the low-energy (non-perturbative) regime of nuclear physics. It is, in fact, only through continuing experiments, and not theory, that we can hope to get through that fence. This may be a long struggle. But it is the struggle, and not so much the golden goal, that is the important thing. Goals may change, but the struggle goes on.

Disk Irradiation by Energetic Particles and Extinct Radioactivities in Meteorites

For the young Solar System, the X-rays may play another role. First, we know from solar observations that flares seen in X-rays also accelerate particles, i.e., electrons, protons and heavier nuclei, which induce so-called spallation nuclear reactions, that is, in-flight, low-energy collisions breaking the nuclei. Among the resulting fragments, some nuclei are produced in an excited state, others are radioactive they are subsequently de-excited or decay, emitting 7-ray photons, such as those that were observed from the Earth in the solar photosphere by the SMM satellite (Murphy et al. 1991), and more recently by the RHESSI satellite (Lin et al. 2003). Again relying on the analogies between the magnetic activity of young stars and that of the Sun, one can then safely assume that particles must be accelerated in the flares of the young stars. This is in part confirmed by radio observations in the centimetre range, which show evidence for a non-thermal emission mechanism (...

Early detectors for the EUV

Because of their ability to count individual photons, and also retain information on the energy of the detected photon, proportional counters were rapidly adopted as the workhorse detector of X-ray astronomy in the 1960s and 1970s. However, their use for low-energy X-rays ( 10-100 A) or EUV ( 100 A) required some improvements. First, the window used in high-energy X-ray proportional counters would absorb all the lower energy X-rays or EUV radiation. So thinner windows were required that would allow these low-energy photons through and yet be strong enough to contain the counter gas. Certain plastics, such as polypropylene, were found to have these properties. Unfortunately, when made thin enough to be transparent to soft X-rays, most were found to be permeable to the gas molecules, causing a slow leak in the counter. Thus a gas flow system was needed to maintain the fill pressure and gas purity, resulting in the so-called 'thin-window, gas-flow' proportional counter.

The termination shock and beyond Voyager 1 results

Instruments on board Voyager 1 unanimously indicated the crossing of a shock front, clearly the termination shock where the solar wind becomes subsonic. (Since the solar wind instrument on Voyager 1 had not been operative for several years, direct measurement of the subsonic wind was not made. Deductions of a subsonic wind flow were made by analysis of the directionality of the low-energy charged particle fluxes that were measured on the spacecraft. The solar wind instrument on the Voyager 2 spacecraft is still operative, so direct measurements of the subsonic flow can be expected when Voyager 2 crosses the shock sometime in the next few years.)

Ooo ooo years Solar Globule

As with all globules, the solar globule was dark. It emitted no light at all. But a bit later in its evolution, as it gradually warmed, it was a strong emitter of heat radiation or infrared. Only an infrared telescope, and possibly a radio telescope, would have been able to penetrate the gas and dust and home in on the low-energy radiation coming from the globule's gently warming core, and see the first, feeble stirrings of the yellow star that the globule would one day become.

Position Resolution of Multiwire Proportional Counters

For low energy X-rays, the largest contribution for the spatial uncertainty is the statistical accuracy of the center of the electron cloud before amplification. For this reason, the spatial resolution for X-rays in the low energy band scales like the energy resolution with E a5.

The Race To Put Humans On The Moon

An entire world watched as NASA's Apollo 11 mission left for the Moon on July 16, 1969. The energy released from the first stage of that rocket was the equivalent of a large electrical power plant. Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin soon achieved what had only been dreamed about in history. On July 20, Armstrong cautiously descended the steps of the lunar module's ladder and touched the lunar surface. He spoke these immortal words That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. As prophesied by the Russian space visionary Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, people did use the rocket to leave the cradle of Earth and take their first steps in the universe. Despite strife around the planet, the astronauts' pioneering accomplishment sent the human spirit soaring. Decades later, people from around the world still remember precisely where they were and what they were doing when they first heard these historic words Houston, Tranquility Base here. The...

Ray Measurements of the WHIM

The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS Canizares et al. 2005) and the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS Brinkman et al. 2000) on Chandra, and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM-Newton (den Herder et al. 2001) were the first instruments to provide sensitivity to weak interstellar and intergalactic X-ray absorption lines. The 'traditional' ionisation detectors (proportional counters, CCD's) do not have sufficient energy resolution for this application. But the angular resolution provided by an X-ray telescope can be used to produce a high resolution spectrum, by the use of diffracting elements. Laboratory X-ray spectroscopy is typically performed with crystal diffraction spectrometers, and the use of crystal spectrometers for general use

Magnetic Fields in the Galaxy

The Crab Nebula is a prime example of the importance of understanding magnetic fields in astronomy. Near the nebula, electrons are thought to spiral around magnetic field lines, giving off energy through a process called synchrotron radiation (see Chapter 2), which requires accelerating charged particles to produce radiation from the radio (low-energy) to the gamma ray (high-energy) part of the spectrum. The Chandra image shown in Figure 1.7 shows us the location of the highest-energy photons that we can detect from this source with high resolution.

Photon and nonphoton astronomy

The electromagnetic waves described by Maxwell's equations are encountered as radio waves, infrared radiation, optical light, ultraviolet radiation, x rays and gamma rays. These different names simply specify ranges of wavelengths or frequencies. The lowest frequencies (or longest wavelengths) are radio waves, and the highest frequencies (or shortest wavelengths) are gamma rays. In the discrete picture, the photons, or quanta, carry energy and momentum much as a mass-bearing particle does. A radio photon has very low energy while a gamma-ray photon has very high energy. In both pictures, the energy is propagated at the speedof light (3.0 x 108 m s in a vacuum), and the signal has the following properties intensity (number of photons), frequency ( color ), polarization, and direction of travel.

Multiphonon Vibrational Excitations In Nearly Spherical Nuclei

The inelastic neutron scattering (INS) reaction with accelerator-produced neutrons has proved very powerful in studies of low-energy collective modes in nuclei and is especially useful in probing nuclear excitations away from the yrast line. Moreover, with this reaction we can frequently populate excited states that are inaccessible with other reactions and examine the properties of these states in detail with the measurement of lifetimes, multipole-mixing ratios, etc. INS with 7-ray detection, i.e., the (n,n'7) reaction, affords notable advantages over other methods. At low incident-neutron energies, this reaction is generally nonselective. The angular momentum that can be brought into the system by low-energy neutrons is limited and facilitates the determination of momentum transfers.

Nv Zamfir And Ge Fernandes

The nature of shape phase transitions in low energy nuclear spectra has been recently the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. It has been known for a long time 1,2 that the spherical-deformed transition regions in the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) from U(5) to SU(3) and from U(5) to 0(6) behave as first and second order phase transitions, respectively. We will discuss these phase shape transition regions in detail and will compare different observables predicted by the IBM along these paths with the available data. 2. Phase shape transition in low energy nuclear spectra In discussing phase transitions in low energy nuclear spectra it is convenient to write the IBM Hamiltonian in the following form3'4

Modelling the TS as a minimum energy structure on the reactantproduct energy seam

Of the force field parameters for the reactant and product, and the force field energy functions. Modifying the force field parameters, or the functional form of some of the energy terms, in order to achieve the desired TS geometry without destroying the description of the reactant product, is far from trivial. A final disadvantage, which is inherent to the SEAM method, is the implicit assumption that all the geometrical changes between the reactant and product occurs in a synchronous fashion, albeit weighted by the energy costs for each type of distortion. Asynchronous or two-stage reactions (as opposed to two-step reactions that involve an intermediate), where some geometrical changes occur mainly before the TS, and others mainly after the TS, are difficult to model by this method.

Detector technology for space missions

The effective area of the EXOSAT low energy telescope with CMA detector and filters (from Paerels et al. 1990). Fig. 2.9. The effective area of the EXOSAT low energy telescope with CMA detector and filters (from Paerels et al. 1990). Fig. 2.10. The efficiency of the EXOSAT low energy telescope and transmission gratings (from Paerels et al. 1990). Fig. 2.10. The efficiency of the EXOSAT low energy telescope and transmission gratings (from Paerels et al. 1990).

Anomalous Cosmic Rays

GCR have a low-energy anomalous component (ACR) (16O, 14N , 20Ne and other ions with energies of 10-20 MeV nucl which can penetrate inside the geomagnetic field like the main GCR component, since, as a rule, they have the minimum charge state of Q 1+. However, the mechanism of 'secondary' particle production in this case is different. Reaching the atmosphere ACR undergo charge-exchange on neutrals. The chargeexchange products (stripped heavy ions) are trapped by the geomagnetic field, forming a radiation belt. This mechanism was suggested by Blake and Friesen (Blake, Friesen (1977)) and was confirmed in a number of experiments. The first experimental indications of the possibility of the formation of a RB containing ACR ions appeared in the works of Biswas (see e.g. Biswas et al. (1980)). The final proof of the existence of such belts was given in the works of the Russian-American collaboration (Grigorov et al., 1991) and later in the experiment on SAMPEX (Selesnick et al., 1997).

Solar Activity Cycles

Sunspots are the traditional indicators of solar activity, with good reason. First, the sunspot record extends back nearly 400 years to the time of Galileo. This long record includes the Maunder Minimum of solar activity and the recent high-amplitude cycles, with a broad range of behavior in between (Figure 2.1). Second, the sunspot number is well correlated with other indicators of solar activity and thus provides a good measure of solar activity. The smoothed sunspot number is correlated with sunspot areas, the 10.7 cm radio flux, and the total solar irradiance at the 99 level (Figures 2.2a, b, and c). There is a 93 correlation between smoothed sunspot numbers and the number of M- and X-class flares (Figure 2.2d) and a 91 correlation with the basal level of geomagnetic activity (Figure 2.2e). The geomagnetic field is also buffeted by high-speed solar wind streams during the declining phase of the solar cycle that contribute to high geomagnetic activity at low levels of solar...

The Concept of Fully Depleted Back Illuminated Radiation Hard pnCCDs

The pnCCD concept for XMM-Newton and the associated fabrication technology allow for an optimum adaption of the pixel size to the X-ray optics, varying from 30 to 500 im pixel size. Up to now systems with 36-300 im have been produced. The XMM-Newton mirror performance of 13 arcsec half energy width (HEW) translates to 470 m position resolution in the focal plane. The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) is about 7 arcsec. Therefore, a pixel size of 150 x 150 m was chosen, giving a position resolution of

Cosmic Neutrinos Associated with Galactic Cosmic Rays

It is important to realize that there is a robust relation between the neutrino and gamma flux emitted by cosmic ray accelerators 2 7 . The v + v neutrino flux (idNv dEv) produced by the decay of charged pions in the source can be derived from the observed gamma ray flux by energy conservation

New Detector Developments Active Pixel Sensors for XRays

Fig. 7.16 Carbon spectrum recorded with a frame store pnCCD. The C-line energy is at 277 eV corresponding to 75 electrons generated by the incoming low energy X-ray. The measured FWHM is around 50 eV. Because of partial absorption of signal carriers, the peak is shifted by 20 eV toward lower energies, if compared with the peak position of the Mn-Ka line at 5.9 keV. The peak to valley ratio is approximately 50 1 Fig. 7.16 Carbon spectrum recorded with a frame store pnCCD. The C-line energy is at 277 eV corresponding to 75 electrons generated by the incoming low energy X-ray. The measured FWHM is around 50 eV. Because of partial absorption of signal carriers, the peak is shifted by 20 eV toward lower energies, if compared with the peak position of the Mn-Ka line at 5.9 keV. The peak to valley ratio is approximately 50 1

Quarkmodel Interactions For Complete Baryon Octet

Baryon-baryon interactions for the complete baryon octet (Bg) are investigated in a unified framework of the resonating-group method, in which the spin-flavor SU6 quark-model wave functions are employed. Model parameters are determined to reproduce properties of the nucleon-nucleon system and the low-energy cross section data for the hyperon-nucleon interaction. We then proceed to explore BgBs interactions in the strangeness S 2, 3 and 4 sectors. The ,S'-wave phase-shift behavior and total cross sections are systematically understood by 1) the spin-flavor SUe symmetry, 2) the special role of the pion exchange and 3) the flavor symmetry breaking. It is important to include the momentum-dependent Bryan-Scott term in the S- and V-meson contributions, in order to make the single-particle (s.p.) potential in nuclear matter repulsive in the high-momentum region 6 fm-1. 5 Another important feature of fss2 is the introduction of vector mesons, which is crucial to improve the fit to the NN...

Light Pollution and What to Do About It

Be aware, however, that these filters are most useful for astrophotogra-phy or digital imaging and are less effective if your primary imaging device is your own retina. Also, all filters block light, dimming the image you see so small-aperture telescopes will suffer most from this side effect. Write your local city government and encourage officials to install low-pressure, downward-facing sodium lamps. These lights have a yellowish glow and are highly energy efficient. You can get many good ideas on how to reduce light pollution from the International Dark Sky Association (find more at www. darksky.org ).

Nonthermal Xray Emission

With mean field values in the range of 0.1-1 G, the energy range of electrons emitting at the observed radio frequencies is 1-100 GeV. Of course, electrons with energies outside this range are also expected, either as part of the same or a different population. In particular, NT Bremsstrahlung EUV and X-ray emission by (the more numerous) lower energy electrons would also be expected (Kaastra et al. 1998 Sarazin 1999). However, at energies below 200 MeV, the main energy loss is electronic excitations in the gas (Rephaeli 1979) this sets a stringent limit on the contribution to the NT X-ray emission by a low energy electron population (Rephaeli 2001 Petrosian 2001). We will therefore assume that NT X-ray emission is largely due to Compton scattering of radio-emitting electrons by the CMB.

Atmospheric Emission Thermal And Nonthermal

Another solar-induced non-thermal process is generally called airglow but it has three components OH molecules, O2 molecules, and the near-infrared nightglow continuum. Of these, the strongest emission comes from the OH molecule which produces a dense forest of emission lines, especially in the 0.8 m-2.5 m region of the near-infrared. First identified astronomically in the optical red by Aden Meinel (1950), these emission bands are formed as OH molecules relax after absorption of ultraviolet photons from the Sun. Excitation is through the reaction H + O3 OH* + O2, where the * indicates that the molecule is in an excited quantum state. Observed emission lines correspond to quantized vibrational and rotational energy transitions of the excited OH* molecule vibration and rotation give successive levels of fine structure on top of electron transitions by emitting low-energy photons. OH emission comes from a relatively thin layer at an altitude of about 90 km, and the strength of the...

Solar Terrestrial Effects

Because charged particles follow magnetic fields, corpuscular radiation is not observed from all big flares but only from those favourably situated in the Sun's western hemisphere. The solar rotation makes the lines of force from the western side of the Sun (as seen from Earth) lead back to Earth, guiding the flare particles there. These particles are mostly protons because hydrogen is the dominant constituent of the Sun. Many of the particles are trapped in a great shock front that blows out from the Sun at 1,000 km sec (600 miles sec). The flux of low-energy particles in big flares is so intense that it endangers the lives of astronauts outside the terrestrial magnetic field.

Lunar surface infrastructure requirements

Eventual human exploration and development of the Moon will require robotic precursor missions to the base site, to set up the habitation modules, get the oxygen plant running, get the power plant running, and so on. Then, these robotic systems must keep everything running (for perhaps several years) until the humans arrive.

Elements Of The Project

The positron source envisaged for this work is the (3+ emitter 13N. This isotope has a 9.96 minute half life and may be efficiently produced in a relatively small, low-energy, accelerator by deuteron irradiation, via the well known reaction 6 , Integrating the thick target cross sections for this reaction, (convoluted with the energy loss profile) in a stopping target predicts a total yield of 7.29 mCi jiA for an incident beam at 3MeV 7 , Thus, taking some typical parameters we see that a 3 MeV, 500 jiA electrostatic accelerator should be able to create around 3.65 Ci of 13N. Assuming continuous production and noting that the branching ratio for positron production is 100 , this corresponds to a primary (unmoderated) positron flux of 1.35 x 10 e+ sec inside the carbon target. Such activities are not available from commercially obtainable (and longer-lived) positron sources such as Na or 58 Co. Low energy positron beams have been produced by this method before 8 and been shown to be...

Akira Yamamoto For The Bess Collaboration

The BESS experiment precisely measured cosmic-ray flux in the energy range below 1 TeV with a high-precision, magnetic-rigidity spectrometer. It has provided fundamental cosmic-ray data, and has extended search for low energy antiparticle of novel cosmic origins. The BESS-Polar program is being carried out with long duration flight in Antarctica to realize unprecedented sensitivity in low energy cosmic-ray observation. This report describes recent results from BESS and the progress in the BESS-Polar program. The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) has been carried out since 1993 for precise measurement of cosmic-ray fluxes and sensitive search for cosmic-ray antiparticle of cosmic origin 1-5 . The absolute flux and spectral shape of primary cosmic rays are the basis to discuss the origin and the propagation history of the cosmic rays in the Galaxy. It is very important to minimize uncertainties of the primary cosmic-ray spectra in study of atmospheric...

The Many Faces of Black Hole Statistical Mechanics

The effective low-energy field theory coming from string theory contains a number of gauge fields, each of which can give a charge to a black hole. An extremal supersymmetric (BPS) black hole is uniquely characterized by its charges in particular, its horizon area can be expressed in terms of these charges. Given such a black hole, one can imagine tuning down the couplings, weakening gravity until the black hole dissolves into a gas of weakly coupled strings and branes. In this weakly coupled system, the charges can be expressed in terms of the number of strings and branes and the quantized momentum carried by strings. Furthermore, the states the excitations of the string-brane system can be explicitly counted 85 . We can therefore write the number of states in terms of the numbers of strings and branes, and thus the charges. Comparing this number to the horizon area, we recover the standard Bekenstein-Hawking entropy as the logarithm of the number of states.

Gml Gmoigdl 393 Gear ratio for Earth departure

The gear ratio for Earth departure to a trans-Mars trajectory was discussed in Section 3.4. The required value of Av varies with launch opportunity, launch date within any opportunity, and the desired trip time to Mars. A fast Type 1'' trajectory for crew transfers may require up to about 4,200 m s whereas a slower low-energy Type 2'' trajectory for cargo transfers may require perhaps 3,900 m s (these are representative values). Estimates of Av are taken from JPL internal reports showing pork-chop plots of Av for various trip times for various departure dates. The specific impulse of a LOX LH2 departure stage may be taken as roughly 450 seconds. Guernsey et al. (loc. cit.) estimated that the ratio of dry propulsion system mass to propellant mass, K 0.11 for space-storable propellants. Larson and Wertz (1999) indicate that for cryogenic Earth departure propulsion systems, K 0.11. However, for longer-term use, we expect K to be higher so we have estimated K to be about 0.12 for Mars...

Spectrum Of Airbreathing Operation

As the speed increases, the engine performance becomes characterized by energy conservation rather than by combustion energy conservation is far more important than chemistry Ahern, 1992 . The result is a spectrum of operation over the speed regime developed by Czysz and Murthy 1991 and shown in Figure 4.7. This figure illustrates the extent to which the kinetic energy of free stream air entering the vehicle inlet capture area and the fuel mass and internal energy become gradually more significant and critical as the flight speed increases. Thus the operating limits of the airbreather can be clearly identified. flow engine (scramjet). The shaded area between 5 and 7 kft s is the transition region defined by Builder for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the region where kinetic compression to subsonic speeds ahead of the combustor alone yields optimum enthalpy compression ratio Builder, 1964 . To the left of this area mechanical compression is required to reach the optimum enthalpy...

General States of Matter

So far we have considered only billiard-ball systems consisting of a quasi-continuous collection of particles. If the particles do not interact (e.g. a dilute gas) then the particle-number current j is well defined, but it ceases to be meaningful if we allow collisions that change the number of particles. Nevertheless, due to charge and energy conservation, the electric current je and the energy-momentum tensor T remain well defined.

Energy Measured at Infinity

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) developed the laws of orbital motion and Leonard Euler (1707-1783) perfected the ideas of energy and energy conservation. In describing the energy of a satellite orbiting a black hole or plunging into it, anyone who has studied Newton's account of gravity and Euler's account of gravitational energy will have to gulp. Their nonrelativ-istic viewpoint distinguished two forms of energy. One form, kinetic, depended on speed, not distance from the center of attraction. The other form, potential, depended on distance from the center of attraction, not speed. Einstein's account of motion in curved spacetime recognizes no such distinction. This new outlook presents us with a new unity. Energy associated with speed, energy associated with location, and energy associated with mass are stirred together inextricably into a greater and simpler whole.

The Structure of Stars

Eddington found that the total radiation of a giant star was independent of its density and was dependent on its mass. As a giant contracted, it would not change much in luminosity because as its surface area diminished, it heated up and its energy efficiency increased. The more mass a star had, the hotter and brighter it would be.

What are Level II parallel universes like

The prevailing view is that the physics we observe today is merely a low-energy limit of a much more general theory that manifests itself at extremely high temperatures. For example, this underlying fundamental theory may be 10-dimensional, supersymmetric and involve a grand unification of the four fundamental forces of nature. A common feature in such theories is that the potential energy of the field relevant to inflation has many different minima ('metastable vacuum states'), these corresponding to different effective laws of physics for our low-energy world. For instance, all but three spatial dimensions could be curled up ('compactified') on a tiny scale, resulting in a space like ours, or fewer could curl up, leaving a 5-dimensional space. Quantum fluctuations during inflation can therefore cause different postinflation bubbles in the Level II multiverse to end up with different effective laws of physics, different dimensionality and different numbers of generations of quarks. 5...

Looking For Signatures Of Unification

The hypothesis that a single unified theory can account for the three separate forces of the Standard Model is attractive in many ways. Such a theory would organize the quarks and leptons into a simple, beautiful structure and would explain the patterns of charges, which otherwise seem quite arbitrary. And most impressively, by including low-energy supersymmetry, it would account quantitatively for the relative values of the different observed coupling strengths.

Propagation of Protons in the Energy Range 0150 MeV through the Earths Bow Shock Magneto Sheath and Magnetopause Inside

Shimazu and Tanaka (2005) note that researchers have long studied the questions of how SEPs reach the earth and how they move in the earth's magnetic field. Early results revealed that relatively low-energy SEPs access only high latitudes in the atmosphere. In the case of the dipole magnetic field, the lowest accessible latitude on the earth is called the Stormer cutoff latitude. In the 1960s and 1970s, comparisons of satellite observations and calculations of particle trajectories based on models of the earth's magnetic field clarified how SEPs enter the magnetosphere and how Shimazu and Tanaka (2005) classify protons incoming to the earth into three categories, depending on the interaction process with the magnetosphere. The first category is low-energy protons (less than 100keV). These are thermal protons forming a component of the solar wind and carrying the MHD flow. The second category is high-energy protons (greater than 50 MeV). These protons are not much affected by the...

The sources of shortlived radionuclides

Another scenario was suggested by Clayton and Jin (1995) the occurrence of 26Al and several other short-lived radionuclides could be accounted for by bombardment of the proto-solar cloud with cosmic rays. Proposed mechanisms include (1) the trapping of freshly synthesized particles (with 26Al 27Al 0.01) accelerated from local SNe ejecta or by stellar wind (2) the trapping of low-energy galactic cosmic rays with very high 26Al 27Al 0.1 (3) the production of radionu-clides within the cloud (cloud core) by the interaction of low-energy cosmic ray nuclei (O, Na, Mg, Si) with cloud constituents, e.g. 12C(16O, pn)26Al. The discovery of the interaction of heavy cosmic ions with interstellar hydrogen supports the latter suggestion (Bloemen et al., 1994). Clayton (1994) showed that the reactions 26Mg(p, n)26Al and 28Si(p, ppn)26Al could yield a ratio 26Al 27Al 2 x 10-5, which is quite similar to the observed initial ratio in the solar nebula. Further, the reaction 38Ar(a, n)41Ca could yield...

Total System Thermal Integration

When discussing propulsion, hypersonic flight or atmospheric entry the question of cooling must be examined in the context of the total energy management or integration. In the case of the SR-71 the aerodynamic heating was mostly absorbed by the structure, and the surface ran at radiative equilibrium temperature. So the SR-71 was a hot structure vehicle and therefore it required a material that maintained its strength at high temperature (i.e., in the 660 C range) and that was beta-titanium. The thermal energy had to be removed from the crew compartment and equipment bays. That thermal energy plus the thermal energy rejected by the engine was transferred to the fuel. Discussions of the SR-71 design state that the fuel temperature entering the engine was over 600 C. In this case all of the thermal energy was discarded as hot fuel and that hot fuel provided no useful work or engine thrust. With a high-temperature hydrocarbon as fuel this was a rational approach as there was hardly any...

Implications of Diversification

In 1975 JPL gave 83 percent of its effort, measured in work-years, to space exploration by 1979 that proportion was below two-thirds, with the other third given to utilitarian programs, mostly energy (up from 5 to 16 percent) and earth-orbital projects (from 7 to 13 percent).99 The lab program now embraced earth science and astronomy as well as planetary exploration in the space program outside of space, JPL was pursuing diverse aspects of energy research as well as smaller programs in biomedicine, transportation, and other fields. By the early 1980s total lab staff numbered more than 4,600, even as flight projects staffing dropped from its peak of about 1,400 in the mid-1960s to below 800 by the early 1980s the difference lay in the 850 work-years given to non-NASA programs by 1980. JPL was the exception among NASA labs all of the others suffered decreases in this period, when NASA overall shrank by about 15 percent.100

The Notion of Time in Astrobiology

''Why is time different from the other dimensions '' remains an open question, and this is one major reason why many scientists are fascinated by problems related to time. Of course, not all sciences are historical, i.e. not all sciences focus their study on similarities or differences occurring between past, present and future events. For example, a chemist studying the evolution of a reaction as a function of time certainly knows that if pressure, temperature and all other experimental conditions are kept the same, the reaction will evolve tomorrow in a deterministic way, exactly as it does today. For this chemist, time is a parameter easily measurable with a chronometer. Even if the reaction under study is irreversible, chemists (as all scientists) know that the physical laws do not change with time. As Noether showed, this time translation independence is related to the energy conservation law (Zee, 1986)

Forces Acting On A Vehicle In The Atmosphere

The thrust is the force produced by the power plant, such as a propeller or a rocket. It usually acts in the direction of the axis of the power plant, that is, along the propeller shaft axis or the rocket nozzle axis. The thrust force of a rocket with constant mass flow has been expressed by Eq. 2-6 as a function of the effective exhaust velocity c and the propellant flow rate m. In many rockets the mass rate of propellant consumption m is essentially constant, and the starting and stopping transients are usually very short and can be neglected. Therefore, the thrust is

Photoelectric Heating

Ultraviolet photons also eject electrons from interstellar dust grains these electrons heat surrounding gas. The energy required to separate a single electron from the neutral grain surface, i. e., the analog of the ionization potential, is known as the work function and is about 6 eV for standard grain composition. The photons actually liberate liberate electrons about 100 A inside the grain (see Figure 7.5). Only about 10 percent of these make their way to the surface. Those that do must still overcome the work function and end up leaving the grain with energies of only about 1 eV. Comparing with the typical photon energy of 10 eV, we see that the net energy efficiency ePE is only about 0.01. The photoelectric process is nevertheless a major heating source for the gas because of the large grain cross section. We may write the associated rate rPE in terms of the grain number density and geometric cross section

Young spiral arm tracers

Spiral arms are embedded within the disks of intermediate- and late-type galaxies. These arms are outlined by molecular clouds, by dust lanes, and by stellar associations. The concept of stellar associations was introduced by Ambartsumian (1949), who showed that both OB stars (O associations) and T Tauri stars (T associations) exist mainly in unstable clumps. Subsequently it was found (van den Bergh 1966b) that stars embedded in reflection nebulae are also significantly clumped (R associations). Since all types of associations are gravitationally unstable they must be young (Blaauw 1958) and disintegrate on time scales of a few x 107 years. Star clusters, which are stable negative energy systems, may be embedded within expanding (positive energy) associations. Figure 4.3 shows (van den Bergh 1968c) how R associations outline the nearby Orion spiral arm. Figure 4.4 also shows that the Orion spiral arm is quite steeply inclined to the Galactic plane. The space density of R associations...

Electric propulsion fundamentals

In view of the importance of the power plant to the rocket configuration, it is convenient to analyse the performance in terms of the component masses Mv, the power-plant mass Me, the expellant mass and Mp, the payload mass. The expellant storage and feed system may be assumed to be part of the power plant, while the power-plant fuel mass will be considered to be negligibly small (nuclear fuel) or inappropriate (solar powered). The configuration envisaged is shown schematically in Figure 6.23. The power plant supplies the exhaust kinetic energy when the jet power is related to the exhaust velocity by an expression of the form.

Searching for Violation of Basic Symmetries

Some of the hypothesized sources of CP violation beyond the Standard Model predict electric dipole moments of elementary particles such as the neutron and the electron, which could one day be detectable in ambitious experiments. (A symmetry principle called time-reversal invariance, or T symmetry, holds that the laws of physics should be the same when time is run backwards. An electric dipole moment would be a violation of T symmetry.) Many unification models, especially those incorporating low-energy supersymmetry, predict an additional and quite different sort of T violation that could be visible through its very tiny effects on ordinary matter. In response to an applied electric field, the macroscopic material would generate, by T violation, a small magnetic field (or, conversely, an applied magnetic field could generate a small electric field). Modern precision spectroscopic techniques provide sensitive tools with which to look for such effects.

Other windows on the universe

Radio waves are emitted by the relatively low energy electrons in an antenna. An antenna does not emit light or X-rays, or indeed any other form of higher energy electromagnetic radiation. The particles that emit radio waves cannot 'pool' their energy to produce light or any other electromagnetic radiation. The detection of electromagnetic waves of a particular energy implies that the source of the waves contains individual particles with at least that energy.

The incredible shrinking spaceprobe

An electrical power of 1013W, applied for 12 days, corresponds to about 3 x 1012kW hours (KWH). From the author's most recent electricity bill, the cost of electrical energy in New York City is about 0.17 KWH. The electrical energy cost to accelerate our interstellar spaceprobe will be approximately 5 x 1011 - a hefty fraction of the US Gross National Product As we shall see in following chapters, feasible methods of converting electrical energy into spacecraft kinetic energy - laser radiation pressure and antimatter matter annihiliation - are very inefficient in terms of energy consumption. Electrical costs for a single 1,000-kg starprobe might bankrupt our entire planet

Superconducting tunnel junctions

In Chapter 7, we will discuss how CCD detection of a high energy photon is accomplished and additionally how this detection and its associated photoelectron production provide information on the energy (wavelength) of the incoming light particle.1 In general, light of low energy (UV to IR) does not produce multiple free electron pairs within a semiconductor thus each incident photon (regardless of wavelength) looks like all the rest upon detection. Separation of spectral bands must be accomplished by filtering the input beam.

Etching Of A Single Particle

In order to demonstrate a good control of the particle radius and the sensitivity of the diagnostics, and to study surface modification of particles, we use a low power oxygen discharge to etch the organic polymer, of which the particles are made. There is a large difference between the standard etching of a substrate placed on the electrode (RIE) and the etching of a free floating object in a plasma. In the sheath of the powered electrode a high potential in the order of 1 kV accelerates positive ions towards the surface. Sputtering and etching of the material is performed by high-energy ions, reaching the electrode surface. In contrast, the potential difference between the plasma and a floating particle is much lower, in the order of 10 V. Therefore, plasma chemical effects due to low-energy ions and radicals are expected to be most important for microscopic particle etching. In order to check the influence of physical ion sputtering, we monitored time changes in the angle-resolved...

Particle Acceleration in Jets

The above arguments, applied to the bright northeast jet of the nearest radio galaxy, Cen A, find in favor of X-ray synchrotron emission 74 , and the proximity of Cen A allows its acceleration sites to be probed in the greatest possible detail. Unfortunately the dramatic dust lane spanning the galaxy masks any optical jet emission. Proper motion of order 0.5c, observed both in the diffuse emission and some knots of Cen A's radio jet, is indicative of bulk motion rather than pattern speed 58 . Since Cen A has a strong jet to counter-jet asymmetry, (23) then suggests that the jet is at a small angle to the line of sight. Since this contradicts the evidence based on parsec-scale properties, and other considerations, that the jet is at about 50 degrees to the line of sight, Cen A appears to be a case where intrinsic effects render (23) inapplicable. Some of the bright X-ray knots have only weak radio emission with no indication of proper motion, but with the radio emission brightening...

The Drive for Unification

A theory that unifies the electromagnetic force with the weak nuclear force was developed around 1970 by Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. Called the electroweak theory, this represents these two distinct forces as being the low-energy manifestations of a single force. When particles have low energy, and are moving slowly, they feel the different nature of the weak and electromagnetic forces. Physicists think that at high energies there is a symmetry between the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Electromagnetism and the weak force appear different to us at low energies because this symmetry is broken. Imagine a

Discovery of XRays from White Dwarfs

The first X-ray sky survey, which was sensitive to photon energies below 1.5 keV ( 8 A) and potentially able to detect hot WDs, was performed with the low energy detectors of the A-2 experiment aboard the HEAO-1 satellite 38 . Five DAs were detected (e.g., 26 ) plus one strong X-ray source, which later turned out to be the unique non-DA H1504+65 (see later). Observations of isolated WDs with Chandra and XMM-Newton are scarce. The Chandra LETG (Low Energy Transmission Grating) spectrum of HZ43 (50170 A) together with EUV and UV spectra is perfectly matched by a pure hydrogen atmosphere, confirming previous results. The same holds for Sirius B. More challenging is the LETG spectrum of GD 246, a hot DA with significant trace metal abundances as derived from detailed studies with EUVE and (F)UV telescopes. Thanks to the superior spectral resolution of Chandra over EUVE, individual spectral lines (from Fe and Ni) could be identified in the soft X-ray spectrum of a DA star for the first...

Nuclear or Chemical Dynamic

Hundreds of kilowatts or multi-megawatts of electrical power require a chemical or nuclear reactor as the primary energy source and rotating a.c. generator. A short-life burst power mission may consider carrying on-board chemical fuel. On the other hand, a long-life mission may require a nuclear reactor. The primary source of power in such a reactor is nuclear fission, just like that in a ground-based nuclear power plant, only much smaller in scale. A fissile material such as uranium-235 works as the heat source to vaporize a fluid, typically liquid metal such as mercury or sodium potassium. The vapor then drives a turbine-generator using the Brayton or the Rankine cycle. The Stirling cycle is suitable in the 50 W to 50 kW power range for long life space missions, while the Brayton cycle is suitable in the 50 kW to 10 MW power range for advanced electric propulsion. A variety of concepts using a nuclear-dynamic system was considered for the strategic defense initiative (SDI) programs...

Photomultiplier and photometry

A photon entering the tube (Fig. 1b) impinges onphotocathode material deposited on the inside surface of the front glass. This results in the ejection of an electron (photoelectron) by means of the photoelectric effect (Section 10.2). The ejected electron is then accelerated by an electric field toward a terminal called a dynode which it strikes with high energy. The dynode material responds to the collision by emitting several low-energy electrons. The emitted electrons are then accelerated toward another dynode and the multiplication is repeated. After some 10 steps, the original electron has become several thousand electrons. This charge is then collected on an anode capacitor and the associated voltage pulse is large enough to be recorded. Each incident photon is thus recorded. The number of recorded photons in some time interval is the measure of the intensity of the incident light. The mean free path of the interaction increases with energy high-energy x rays (hard x rays) will...

The Xenon Dark Matter Experiment

The XENON experiment aims at the direct detection of dark matter in the form of WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) via their elastic scattering off Xenon nuclei. With a fiducial mass of 1000 kg of liquid xenon, a sufficiently low threshold of 16 keV recoil energy and an un-rejected background rate of 10 events per year, XENON would be sensitive to a WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section of 10 46 cm2, for WIMPs with masses above 50 GeV. The 1 tonne scale experiment (XENON1T) will be realized with an array of ten identical 100 kg detector modules (XEN0N100). The detectors are time projection chambers operated in dual (liquid gas) phase, to detect simultaneously the ionization, through secondary scintillation in the gas, and primary scintillation in the liquid produced by low energy recoils. The distinct ratio of primary to secondary scintillation for nuclear recoils from WIMPs (or neutrons), and for electron recoils from background, is key to the event-by-event discrimination...

Abort options conclusions

There are a number of potential mission architectures for human missions to Mars and each of these has somewhat different implications for abort options and safety. All of the early Mars DRMs (JSC's DRM-1 and DRM-3, Mars Direct, and MSM) sent a large infrastructure to the surface of Mars 26 months prior to crew departure. Central to this infrastructure was a nuclear reactor power plant, an Ascent Vehicle with empty propellant tanks, and an in situ resource utilization (ISRU) plant capable of filling the Ascent Vehicle's propellant tanks by reacting hydrogen (brought from Earth) with indigenous carbon dioxide. If the tanks of the Ascent Vehicle were filled prior to crew departure from Earth, that would add an element of mission safety. For this mission architecture, it is essential that the crew link up with the landed infrastructure after descent, or they will have no means of returning from Mars. Thus, pinpoint-landing accuracy is a necessary requirement for these mission concepts....

Depthprofiled Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Of Thin Insulation Films

Abstract The various techniques of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) may be among the best for characterizing pore size, pore distribution and interconnectivity in amorphous thin films. In particular, PAS is becoming recognized as a practical characterization method for low-k dielectric films in microelectronic materials research. We expect this area of PAS research to experience a significant increase in activity in the next decade. Many obstacles to using low energy positron beams to depth profile thin film insulators with positron annihilation spectroscopies (PAS) have recently been overcome.

COUPP a Heavy Liquid Bubble Chamber for WIMP Detection

Several techniques have been identified and exploited to maximize the stability of small bubble chamber prototypes containing CF3Br and CF3I. Namely, avoidance of contact with rough metallic surfaces, use of an immiscible liquid lid above the active volume, outgassing of surface imperfections in the presence of a buffer liquid, surface cleaning techniques and wetting improvement via vapor deposition 3 . Small prototypes ( 30g) remain superheated for periods of 15 minutes on the average at the shallow 6 m.w.e. depth of the EFI underground laboratory, a nucleation rate compatible with the measured neutron flux and energy spectrum in the site 4 . The insensi-tivity (rejection factor) to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in operating conditions at which the liquids are fully responsive to low energy nuclear recoils has been measured to be 109 using strong gamma sources 4 . This guarantees the ability to build much larger prototypes in the ton or multi-ton regime, essentially without any...

Exosat A Rather Noisy Beginning

The story of X-ray observations of classical novae in outburst began on April 20, 1984, when GQ Mus (1983) was discovered 460 days after outburst at a 4.5 a level with the low energy telescope (0.04-2 keV) and the CMA onboard EXOSAT by Ogelman, Beuermann, and Krautter 23 . Because of the missing spectral resolution of the CMA, no spectral information could be obtained. The count rate was compatible with either a shocked shell of circumstellar gas emitting 107 K thermal bremsstrahlung radiation at 1035 erg s-1 or with a hot white dwarf remnant emitting at 3.5 1037 erg s-1. Similar results were obtained from three more observations of GQ Mus and from several observations of QU Vul (1984 1) and PW Vul (1984 2) 24 . The data of QU Vul and PW Vul that were both observed during early phases indicated that the count rate increased during the early phases of the outburst. The results were consistent with hydrogen burning of a hot white dwarf at constant bolometric luminosity as predicted by...

Reduction of Backgrounds

Rejection of photon-related backgrounds in the CDMS II experiment has been measured using high-energy photon sources. Rejection of photon and electron backgrounds has been simulated using GEANT4, including tracking of low-energy electrons created by photon interactions and inferred depth-dependent ionization yield based on calibrations with an electron source 15 . The simulations and measurements both indicate that of all photon-related events (15-45 keV), 0.3 are single-scatter surface events with some ionization-yield suppression, and 1.8 of those (or 0.005 of all photon-related events) suffer enough ionization-yield suppression to be misidentified as nuclear recoils (see Table 1). Thus, rejection is 99.995 efficient based on the number of scatters and ionization yield alone, and is 99.9999 after applying the phonon-timing cut.

Space Weather Effects On Soho

The only permanent effect so far is the degradation of the solar arrays due to high energetic protons from solar eruptions. This degradation is due to displacement damage energetic particles interact with the solar cell lattice producing defects which enhance electron and hole recombination thus reducing the solar cell's output voltage and current. The actual degradation of the solar array is given in Figure 3. The degradation due to proton events is evident with significant drops during the July 14, 2000 and November 4 & 23, 2001 events. The degradation after 80 months in space is 13.8 . This is an annual average degradation of 2.01 , well within the 4 per year requirement. SOHO can operate down to 70 sensitivity without taking any energy saving action.

Meridional Circulation

There was for long a severe physical problem the solutions for meridional circulation were not conserving the angular momentum. Thus the reality of the circulation was questioned 80 (see Rieutord 489 ). Some solutions without circulation were envisaged 285, 499 , while some authors proposed solutions which in fact did not respect the basic laws of physics The problem was solved by Zahn 632 , who showed that one must treat simultaneously the equation for energy conservation which expresses the thermal imbalance, the Poisson equation and the conservation of angular momentum. A self-consistent solution was found at last and this was a great step forward. 11.1 The Energy Conservation on an Isobar Meridional circulation derives from thermal imbalance (see Sect. 4.2.1). We start by developing 632 the equation of energy conservation (3.42, 3.43) 11.1 The Energy Conservation on an Isobar

Performance of the TPC

The experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 4. We operated the y-TPC with a gas gain of about 3000 and irradiated the y-TPC with neutrons from 252Cf source. One fission decay of 252Cf emits 3.8 neutrons and 9.7 photons on average, therefore, the y-TPC was triggered by gamma-rays detected by the YAP scintillator. Since we put the whole mother board as shown in Fig. 4, the y-PIC did not work stably with a lower gas pressure than 0.2 atm due to outgas from some resistances and decoupling capacitances on the mother board. We, therefore, performed the 3D tracking measurement with a gas mixture of Ar-C2H6 (90 10) at 0.2 atm, and detected low energy proton and carbon recoil tracks 17 . The left and right panels of Fig. 5 show typical recoil proton tracks and their Bragg curves with energies between 100 keV and 300 keV and one of the carbon track candidates and its Bragg curve, respectively. Track length known from the digital track data and the deposited energy measured from the FADC waveform...

Messengers instruments

GRNS will also detect low-energy neutron particles that are created when cosmic radiation hits hydrogen-rich material, down to about 40 centimeters (1.3 feet) below the surface. This makes the instrument useful for finding water-ice at the poles of Mercury, were it may be hiding in the cold shadows inside craters where sunshine never manages to reach.

Equivalence of the Etendue and Lagrange Invariants

Lagrange Invariant Optics

Carnot (1796-1832), in posthumous papers, noticed that (Bruhat 22 ) in a general thesis, the driving power is an invariable quantity in nature which strictly speaking is neither produced nor destroyed. This was brought to attention by Clapeyron. In 1845, J.R. Mayer gave the first formulation of the general law on energy conservation during a transfer process. These notions were given more accurate mathematical forms by Helmholtz (1847), Clausius (1850), who later introduced the term entropy, and Lord Kelvin (1853).

Graviton Emissions and Quantum Physics

Processes of energy consumption are everywhere in equilibrium with those of regeneration. The simplest manner in which we may visualize the regeneration of graviton energies is that moving bodies simultaneously emit energy at the same rate as they absorb it, this energy corresponding in some sense to their kinetic energy. This possibility would be in keeping with the suggestions in the previous section.

The anthropic principle dark energy and the LHC

The cosmological constant problem (CCP) is one of the most pressing problems in physics. It has eluded traditional approaches based on symmetries or dynamics. In contrast, the anthropic principle has scored a significant success in accounting for both the smallness of the cosmological constant (CC) and the proximity of the vacuum and matter energies in our universe 1 .1 Once we accept the anthropic principle as a legitimate approach for solving the CCP, it is natural to ask whether it might be applicable to other problems that can also be addressed with traditional methods. In this case, nature would have the interesting dilemma of choosing between an anthropic and a normal solution. An example is the gauge hierarchy problem (GHP). Like the CCP, it is a naturalness problem characterized by a small dimensionless number. Unlike the CCP, it can be solved with traditional symmetries, such as low-energy supersymmetry. As we will argue later, the GHP can also be addressed via anthropic...

Quarks electrons and atoms in closely related universes

In the thirty years since modern anthropic reasoning was introduced into cosmology 1,2 , the competing idea that anthropic selection might have an indispensable role in fundamental physical theory has gradually become, if not universally accepted, at least mainstream. There are now concrete physical models for realizing anthropic selection in nature. Cosmology has provided not only a concrete mechanism (inflation) for manufacturing multiple universes, but also a new phenomenon (dark energy) whose value is most often explained by invoking anthropic explanations. String theory has uncovered a framework by which many different symmetries and parameters for fields can be realized in the low-energy, 4-dimensional universe this depends on the topology and size of the manifold of the other seven (truly fundamental) dimensions and on the configurations of p-branes within it, especially the local environment of the 3-brane on which our own Standard Model fields live. The number of locally...

High Mass Xray Binaries HMXB

The optical companions in HMXB are either Be stars (M 5M0) or OB supergiants (M 15M0). The NS is in a close orbit around the huge star, and the mass transfer is by accretion from the circumstellar disk of the Be star or by stellar wind from the supergiant, which may lose up to 10-5 M0 yr-1. The X-ray radiation emerging from the surface of the NS has to escape through a variable environment of circum-stellar material in which it suffers absorption and scattering, observable by variable low energy cut-offs in the X-ray spectra. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosity (Lx Lopt) is of order unity and X-ray heating of the companion is not important. Many ( 15 keV). The binary orbits range from 4.8 h to 187 days. Only a few of all HMXB (

The anthropic landscape of string theory

The space of these solutions is called the 'moduli space of supersymmet-ric vacua'. I will call it the 'supermoduli-space'. Moving around on this supermoduli-space is accomplished by varying certain dynamical 'moduli'. Examples of moduli are the size and shape parameters of the compact internal space that 4-dimensional string theory always needs. These moduli are not parameters in the theory, but are more like fields. As you move around in ordinary space, the moduli can vary and have their own equations of motion. In a low-energy approximation, the moduli appear as massless scalar fields. The beauty of the supermoduli-space point of view is that there is only one theory but many solutions, these being characterized by the values of the scalar field moduli. The mathematics of string theory is so precise that it is hard to believe that there is not a consistent mathematical framework underlying the supermoduli-space vacua. To the extent that the low-energy properties of string theory...

Critical Consideration of Results in Sections 51 and 521524

In these Sections we presented the design and operation of the latitude survey experiment conducted on board the ship Italica of the Italian Antarctic Research Program (PNRA) during the austral summer 1996 97. Two neutron detectors, a standard 3NM-IQSY and a 2-bare-counter detector (2BC) were in operation on the ship. The analysis of data recorded before, during, and after the survey showed that the data quality was sufficiently accurate to assure the determination of reliable coupling functions of neutron monitor intensity for the 1996 97 solar minimum. The comparison between simultaneous data from the 3NM-IQSY detector and from the 17NM-IQSY of the Rome station before and after the survey showed that the efficiency of the 3NM-IQSY remained stable within 0.3 this comparison also showed that the 3NM-IQSY detector on the ship Italica responds to atmospheric mass changes like the standard 17NM-IQSY in Rome. Moreover, stability in the efficiency of the 3NM-IQSY was assured by the...

Hypernovae and Faint Supernovae

Among the important developments in recent studies of core-collapse supernovae are the discoveries of two distinct types of supernovae (SNe) (Fig. 1) 16, 23 1) very energetic SNe (hypernovae), whose kinetic energy (KE) exceeds 1052 erg, about 10 times the KE of normal core-collapse SNe (hereafter E51 E 1051 erg), and 2) very faint and low energy SNe (E51 0.5 faint supernovae). These two types of supernovae are likely to be black-hole-forming supernovae with rotating or non-rotating black holes. We compare their nucleosynthesis yields with the abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars to identify the Pop III (or first) supernovae. We show that the EMP stars, especially the C-rich class, are likely to be enriched by black-hole-forming supernovae.

Generation of Neutrons and Gamma Rays in the Martian Subsurface

Because Mars has no planetary magnetic field and a very thin atmosphere with a column density of about 15-25 g cm-2, galactic cosmic rays propagate to and interact with the surface. Under the cosmic ray bombardment, a large number of secondary neutrons are produced within the subsurface layer of 1-2 meters. Outgoing leakage neutrons interact with nuclei of elements of the subsurface material, producing outgoing leakage flux of neutrons and gamma rays 1-4 . There are two major types of this interaction (Fig. 5.1) inelastic scattering of neutrons on nuclei, which results in emission of nuclear lines of existing nuclei and in moderation of neutrons down to thermal energies and neutron capture reaction, which absorbs neutrons with creation of new nuclei, usually at the excited states with following emission of gamma-quantum of de-excitation. The first process is more efficient for high energy neutrons, which still have enough energy to excite nuclei, and the second process has a larger...

Energetic Particle Populations In The Inner Heliosphere

An overview of the solar-minimum measurements by the low-energy particle instrumentation on Ulysses is shown in Figure 5.1. The intensities of 40-65 keV electrons and 1.8-4.7 MeV ions from HI-SCALE (Lanzerotti et al., 1992), and 71-94 MeV protons from the High Energy Telescope (HET) of COSPIN (Simpson et al., 1992) are plotted in the upper three panels of Figure 5.1, respectively, as a function of time throughout the solar minimum orbit. The fourth panel of Figure 5.1 shows the solar wind speed, whereas the bottom panel shows the heliographic latitude (blue line) and the heliocentric radial distance (red dashed line) of Ulysses together with the monthly sunspot number (green hatched area). Figure 5.1 spans from 22 August 1992 when Ulysses was at the heliocentric radial distance R 5.28 AU and heliographic latitude A 15.8 S to 30 October 1998 when Ulysses was at R 5.29 AU and again at A 15.8 S, therefore this period includes the first perihelion at 1.34 AU on 12 March 1995 and the...

Positronatom Molecule Scattering

This area of physics has prospered greatly since the development of low energy positron beams, but particularly over the last 15 years or so. During this period reliable values were established for a variety of integrated partial cross sections and some processes were studied differential in scattering angle and energy (as appropriate) 2 . It is now worth looking back briefly and recalling some of the factors which first motivated the study of positron

Experimental Aspects and Detection Methods

For the detection of the very low energy solar neutrinos (ue) radiochemical methods as well as large-scale liquid scintillation detectors are being used for the more energetic solar neutrinos the water Cherenkov technique is employed. The advantage of the two latter methods over the radiochemical method is that the data are accessible in real time and supply also directional information, which is not available from the radiochemical method. Until very recently all solar and cosmic ray neutrino experiments have been carried out deep underground, in order to achieve adequate shielding of the detectors from the unwanted components of the cosmic radiation, to reduce background. However, the extremely low intensity predicted for ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos require much larger detectors than those used for low energy solar and even moderately energetic atmospheric neutrino studies to achieve a reasonable event rate. identified was the neutrino burst from the supernova SN-1987A...

Zs Revay And G L Molnar

In 1998 an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project (IAEA CRP) 5 was formed to evaluate the Budapest data and other information from the literature and create a comprehensive database for PGAA. This database of 30,000 gamma-rays from prompt neutron capture has now been completed.

Early SNR XRay Astrophysics

Early satellites provided higher quality spectra, as well as a few additional maps. The low energy concentrator on SAS-3 mapped the soft X-ray emission from large remnants such as Vela and Lupus, and discovered X-rays from SN 1006 (e.g., 50 ). The HEAO-1 A2 proportional counters were used to study emission lines, especially Fe K, in the spectra of bright, young remnants (e.g., 123 ), and made the first detection of hard spectral tails 122 . Prior to the launch of Einstein, about a dozen X-ray emitting SNRs were known.

Development of Models of the Axially Symmetric Currents Influence on CR Cutoff Rigidities

Where Rc and Rc are the cutoff rigidities with and without ring current and ME is the magnetic moment of the earth. Data about the radiation belts show that Rc Rc can vary only from 0.5 to 1. But observations, even during a moderate magnetic storm, give Rc Rc 0.06. Therefore Akasofu and Lin (1963) assume that there must exist yet another mechanism causing particles of very low energy to reach the earth during magnetic storms at high latitudes 65 . Webber (1963) believes that besides the ring current, a homogeneous field in the magnetosphere must be assumed, parallel to the dipole axis and formed by current systems at the boundary between the earth's magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. In order to explain the large decrease of the rigidity and the fact that the cutoff is not sharp, Ray (1964) assumes that the geomagnetic field is confined because it is made turbulent by the solar wind at large distances from the earth. He estimates a ring current, with a magnetic moment of...

Dl4 Other consumables

Calculations by Allen and Zubrin (1999) have shown that even if water ice exists in the permanently-shadowed craters at the lunar poles, extracting it may not be more energy-efficient than some of the proposed processes for obtaining oxygen from lunar rock (magma electrolysis actually requires less power). This surprising result stems from the fact that frozen water-ice at 40 K requires a substantial amount of heat in order to bring it to its melting point. Moreover, transporting the feedstock from a crater floor to an area where it can be processed will require additional energy as well as equipment. Finally, operating machinery at 40 K will be a challenge that is unique to this process.10

Continuum processes in manyelectron atoms

A detailed understanding of the physics of electron-atom and photon-atom collisions has been of use in many fields of application such as astrophysics, plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion, laser physics, isotope separation, and surface science. Experiments have sought to reveal details of the dynamics of a myriad of processes at a fundamental level. In this chapter, we examine several topics in which a relativistic formulation is desirable. Low-energy elastic scattering of electrons by heavy atoms was one of the earliest of these to be investigated. At slightly higher energies, multi-channel close-coupling methods have been popular, and we focus on relativistic generalizations of the popular R-matrix method, both for electron-atom scattering and for photo-excitation and ionization, as well as the relativistic random phase approximation. Relativistic treatments of elastic scattering of electrons by heavy atoms and ions attracted attention 1 at about the same time as...

Trapping in Single Waves

Consider, for instance, a potential well created by an ion in a plasma. In the fluid description electrons in the vicinity of the ion will readily deplete this well outside the Debye radius, XD. But if one takes into account the different velocities of the electrons, say, in a Maxwellian distribution of particles, it becomes clear that only low energy electrons will be trapped in the vicinity of the ion in the potential trough. The condition for trapping is that the particle energy is less than the potential energy of the electric field, We e 4 . The particle distribution then splits into a trapped and a non-trapped distribution. In a shallow potential well it is reasonable to assume that the trapped distribution is constant, ftI(We) fe(0), where fe(0) is the distribution at the center of the well. The particle density is calculated from the moment of the distribution function as Similar arguments apply to instability-generated Langmuir waves. For instance, in the presence of a gentle...

Azimuthai Angle [

Figure 4.95 Illustration of the east-west effect. Shown is the azimuthal distribution of low energy near horizontal e-like (upper figure) and ju-like (lower figure) experimental data together with the Monte Carlo predictions of Honda et al. (1995 and 1996) (solid histogram, A) and Lipari et al. (1998) (dashed line, B) of the flux. The azimuthal angle 0 corresponds to particles going to the north and (f 180 to particles going south. The expected deficit of neutrinos from the east due to the geomagnetic cutoff of the charged primaries is observed (after Scholberg, 1999).

Hadrons Spectra and Composition 521 Introduction

The hadronic component covers an enormous energy range. At or near the Earth the low energy observational limit is given by the geomagnetic cutoff and, if detection takes place within the atmosphere, by an additional atmospheric cutoff. On the opposite side of the spectrum, where the most energetic particles so far detected exceed 1020 eV, detector size and statistics impose a limit to exploration. The low energy component up to rigidities of a few GV is subject to solar modulation and exhibits a large variability that may be as much as a factor of two or more in intensity. The modulation effects are rigidity dependent and diminish with increasing particle rigidity. They become negligible at a rigidity of about 10 GV. Presently direct measurements of the energy and composition of the cosmic radiation are limited to the region below 105 GeV per particle. The low energy component was explored with instruments on board of satellites, space stations, and balloons using a wide variety of...

The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

Scintillating crystals are the most precise calorimeters for energy measurements and provide excellent energy resolution over a wide range, as well as high detection efficiency for low energy electrons and photons. Their structural compacteness allows to have simple building blocks for mechanical assembly, hermetic coverage and fine transverse granularity. The choice of PbWO4 crystals has been driven by their characteristics, as summarized in Table 2. Furthermore, PbWO4 production on large scale is possible, making this material interesting for a LHC detector. The energy resolution can be parametrized as

Choice of modulation and access systems

The output SNR is one of the main factors in determining the choice of modulation technique. Other factors of primary importance are the equipment complexity, the payload electrical efficiency, the spectral occupancy and the general system efficiency, flexibility and adaptability.

Impeller Diverter Rotating Rocket

One advantage of this design is that the entire engine rotates as a unit. Therefore the only moving part is the engine itself. Rotation accomplishes several things at once (1) it allows air to be used as a propellant-oxidizer in the atmosphere as it is sucked in and pressurized by the impeller (2) it acts as a pump for the liquid propellants (3) it pressurizes the propellants prior to their delivery to the combustion chamber and (4) it slightly increases the pressure of the ram air because of centrifugal force in the transverse component of the annular ram air conduit. Another advantage of this design is that the impeller is protected from melting at supersonic velocities because ram air is diverted away at those speeds. Yet it still provides pressurized propellants to the combustion chamber by centrifugal operation at all speeds, in the atmosphere and in space. All of these attributes would allow this engine to fulfill its role as a power plant for an advanced spaceplane,...

The failure of unification to solve the problem

This evidence is very weak - e.g. they are unable to construct propagation amplitudes even for free, non-interacting strings - but they are able to argue that there are consistent string theories with the desired characteristics. Their low-energy behaviour should be captured by solutions to classical supergravity, coupled to the patterns of the branes in question. They then construct the low-energy, classical, supergravity description. Of course, the logic here is backwards. Had they been able to show that the required supergravity solutions do not exist, they would have ruled out the corresponding string theories. But the existence of a good low-energy limit is not a sufficient condition for a theory to exist. So, on logical grounds, the evidence for string theories with positive cosmological constant is very weak. However, if one takes the existence of these theories seriously, there is a disturbing consequence the evidence suggests that the number of distinct theories is vast, of...

Main Properties of the Tail of the Magnetosphere

Axford, 1966 Akasofu, 1966 Behannon and Ness, 1966 Paddington, 1967). The strength of the magnetic field in the tail is about 40 gammas, and, according to magnetic data from IMP-3 (Ness, 1967) and measurements of plasma fluxes on Luna-10 (Gringaus et al., 1966), it certainly extends beyond the orbit of the moon. Data from Explorer 33 (Ness et al., 1967b) make it possible that it extends to distances of about 510,000 km. From data of Pioneer-7 it is not excluded that it reaches up to 900-1,050 earth's radii (Ness et al., 1967c). It should be noted that there are indirect data, based on observations on the flux of low-energy electrons from the sun at energies of some tens of keV which suggest that this tail even may extend to 0.25 AU (Lin and Anderson, 1966). The first estimates of the influence of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere on CR cutoff rigidities were made by Michel (1965). He showed that, if the extension of the tail of the magnetosphere is sufficiently large, low-energy...

Properties of hypernovae

Figure 28.1 (bottom) shows (isotropic) E as a function of the main-sequence mass Mms of the progenitor star obtained from fitting the optical light curves and spectra. These mass estimates place hypernovae at the high-mass end of SN progenitors. In contrast, SNe II 1997D and 1999br were very faint SNe with very low E (Turatto et al. 1998 Zampieri et al. 2003). Therefore, we propose that SNe from stars with Mms 20-25 M0 . have different E and M (56Ni), with a bright, energetic hypernova branch at one extreme and a faint, low-energy SN branch at the other (Nomoto et al. 2003ab). For the faint SNe, the explosion energy was so small that most 56Ni fell back onto the compact remnant. Thus the faint SN branch may become a failed SN branch at larger Mms. Between the two branches, there may be a variety of SNe (Hamuy 2003).

E82 Vaporphase reduction feedstockindependent

This term comprises a family of processes which employ high temperatures and the gaseous state. The feedstock is vaporized to transform oxygen-containing compounds into monoxides and oxygen, which can then be collected upon cooling. No consumables are needed. Among its advantages is the instant and complete consumption of the raw material. It is thought that the process can be turned on or off at any time, without any pre-heating or shut-down time (Steurer and Nerad, 1983). The major disadvantage is the high energy consumption. Figure E.7 shows a schematic of the process which has been proposed.

Clusters of galaxies and the virial theorem

The virial theorem 2K + V 0 can only be satisfied if the potential energy is negative and twice the value of K, since K is always positive. Particles in free fall from a great distance toward the barycenter would have K + V 0 from energy conservation and would not satisfy the virial theorem. In contrast, particles swarming around the barycenter in a stable (unchanging configuration) do obey the

The Principle of Mediocrity

Garriga and Vilenkin then argue that certain predictions can be drawn concerning properties of the vacuum energy 63 . We note that, in conformity with the above argument, no predictions are drawn concerning properties that have to do with the parameters of low-energy physics and are uncorre-lated in a random ensemble with the existence of life. Still, it is good that people put predictions on the table and we should take them seriously. To do so, we must ask what exactly would be falsified if one or more of their predictions were found to disagree with observation. The argument depends on properties of the eternal inflation theory, some rough guesses about the wave-function of the universe and how to reason with it, and some rationale about the effects of vacuum energy on the creation and evolution of galaxies.

What We Know From Theory

(a) The stochastic variational method (SVM) uses a large number of explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) basis functions to describe the wave function as a linear sum. The coefficients in the linear expansion are determined by the standard Ritz variational procedure i.e., by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. The matrix elements are very simple to calculate, so a large number of basis functions can be tolerated. A large number of ECGs is required to faithfully represent the wave function because these functions have an incorrect form both at long range and at short range. The number required is so large, in fact, that the nonlinear parameters cannot be found by minimizing the energy. Rather, they are estimated by a random search. Calculations using up to 1000 Gaussians and involving up to 10,000 nonlinear parameters are the present practical upper limits to calculations, necessitated by realities of computer power. This translates into a maximum of six particles in a given system....

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