English Language Software
I am grateful to my wife, Becky, for her support, patience, and assistance with the English language. I would also like to thank Drs John Mason, Jon Egill Kristjansson and Asgeir Brekke for reviewing the manuscript and giving advice on the text. Thanks to Mike Shardlow for his technical assistance in editing and preparing the book. Dr David B. Stephenson at the University of Reading and Dr Nils Gunnar Kvamst0 at the University of Bergen brought my attention to the book Temperature variations in the North Atlantic ocean and in the atmosphere written by Bj0rn Helland-Hansen and Fridtjof Nansen in 1920, which inspired much of the historical emphasis of this book. Gustav Bj0rbak and Sofus Lystad at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute have supplied me with material of which I otherwise would not have been aware.
The English-language edition includes results obtained during recent years. The most important of them are the new data of far ultraviolet observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, the recently launched Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Explorer, and the new-generation X-ray telescopes XMM-Newton and Chandra. As a result, about 100 publications were added to the list of references. This edition does not contain The Catalog of Flare Stars in the Solar Vicinity, which is accessible in Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 139, p. 555, 1999. I am very grateful to Drs. L.A. Pustil'nik and M.M. Katsova for useful remarks, to L.I. Filatova and A.V. Terebizh for active help in preparing figures and the list of references, respectively. My special thanks go to the translator, Dr. Svetlana Knyazeva, for fruitful collaboration.
The spelling of the feature names is that of the IAU, as it appears in the catalog maintained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The text follows the conventions of the annotations. In some cases, the spelling of IAU names differs from the spelling used in the text, when persons the features are named for are mentioned. An example of this distinction is that one far side crater is called Tsiolkovskiy, while the text refers to Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, the Russian rocket scientist. The spelling is the same in Russian the difference lies in diverse transliteration rules used by the IAU and by translators to the English language.
The RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IS WRITTEN using the Cyrillic alphabet, which concists of 33 letters. While some of the sounds that these letters symbolize have equivalents in the English language, many have no equivalent, and two of the letters have no sound of their own, but instead soften or harden the preceding letter. Because of the lack of direct correlation, a number of systems for transliterating Russian (i.e., rendering words using the Latin alphabet), have been devised, all of them different.
The word has an archaic ring to it. No wonder, because it's been in the English language since at least the 1600s, and because it describes the study of some of the oldest and most profound issues humankind has ever addressed the nature, structure, origin, and end of the universe. Those are big, unanswered questions.
Bishop of Hereford and author of what is arguably the first science fiction story to be written in the English language. In The Man in the Moone,131 published posthumously in 1638, Godwin conveys the astronaut Domingo Gonsales to the Moon in a chariot towed by trained geese. (Gonsales had intended a less ambitious flight but discovered that the geese are in the habit of migrating a little further than ornithologists had supposed ) In keeping with both popular and scientific opinion of his day, Godwin accepted the notion that air filled the space between worlds and that the Moon was inhabited by intelligent human beings. See Wilkins, John and Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien de.
As the series editor, my job was first and foremost to ensure that the English language version was as faithful to Chertok's original Russian version as possible. At the same time, I also had to account for the stylistic considerations of English-lan-guage readers who may be put off by literal translations. The process involved communicating directly with Chertok in many cases and, with his permission, taking liberties to restructure paragraphs and chapters to convey his original spirit. I also made sure that technical terms and descriptions of rocket and spacecraft design satisfied the demands of both Chertok and the English-speaking audience. Finally, I provided many explanatory footnotes to elucidate points that may not be evident to readers unversed in the intricacies of Russian history. Readers should be aware that all of the footnotes are mine unless cited as author's note, in which case they were provided by Chertok.
If You are located outside the U.S., then the following provisions shall apply (i) Les parties aux presentes confirment leur volonte que cette convention de meme que tous les documents y compris tout avis qui siy rattache, soient rediges en langue anglaise (translation The parties confirm that this Agreement and all related documentation is and will be in the English language. ) and (ii) You are responsible for complying with any local laws in your jurisdiction which might impact your right to import, export or use the Software, and You represent that You have complied with any regulations or registration procedures required by applicable law to make this license enforceable.
Everyone has their own specific ideas as to what to include in a book and what not to include. It is not easy to reach a general consensus. We have mainly used original quotations in order that the character of this compilation be evident. From number (1565) Lemaitre, which was the first object to be numbered after World War II, this policy has been applied to every minor planet. From that time onward, the Minor Planet Center - then in Cincinnati, Ohio, now in Cambridge, Massachusetts - took the task of nomenclature over from the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI) - then in Berlin, now in Heidelberg. The Minor Planet Circulars (MPC) report not only on new name assignments but also on many names that have since replaced numbers earlier than (1565). The names of these older planets were usually taken from the lists of Herget (1955, 1968). The explanations of these older names could, in most cases, be found in the contemporary literature, including the Astronomische Nachrichten (AN),...
My special thanks to my younger son Vadim for his vicious, but constructive criticism of the first drafts of the manuscript and for his invaluable technical help and also to David Green for his time and angelic patience in translating my version of the English language into English (any remaining linguistic and other errors that might have survived and slipped into the final text are to be blamed entirely on me).
The large number of astronomical books being translated into Latin gave astronomy an assured place in the curricula of Bologna, Paris, Oxford, and the other emerging universities of the 12th century. In the quadrivium, students were instructed in astronomy, geometry, arithmetic and music the four 'sciences' of mathematical proportion. Johannes de Sacrobosco (d.c.1256) wrote the best-selling De sphaera mundi ('On the Sphere of the World') around 1240, which would be a reference for students of astronomy for the next 400 years. Through the universities especially, astronomical knowledge became widespread in educated society. The poet Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340-1400) wrote Treatise on the Astrolabe (c.1381), the first technological book in the English language, being a practical manual describing the use of the astrolabe.
Named in memory of Jean Iris Murdoch (1919-1999), prolific novelist and philosopher, whose 26 moralist-existentialist fictional works in 41 years earned her a place among the leading twentieth-century writers in the English language. Already suffering from Alzheimer's disease when her last novel was published
Apart from the valuable help from outside sources, acknowledged above or in the text, I also owe a great debt of gratitude to a number of ESO colleagues Uta Grothkopf and Angelika Treumann of the ESO library, for their admirable service in literature procurement, particularly concerning historical aspects of Petzval's work Bernard Delabre for information on his P.F. corrector Gero Rupprecht for information on the ESO Linear ADC system Philippe Dierickx for help with the setting-up of the new Spot Diagram (Fig. 4.18) Ed Janssen for completing this Spot Diagram, for the new figure of the LADC (Fig. 4.36) and corrections to two existing figures (see above) Stephane Guisard for pointing out two errors and, above all, Lothar Noethe for many discussions and suggestions arising from his detailed knowledge of the book - I sometimes think he knows parts of it better than I know them myself My deep thanks are again due to my wife Anne, who always serves as my Delphic Oracle on the English...
In 1638 another science fiction story was published posthumously, this time in the English language. Francis Godwin, the Bishop of Hereford, describes in his book A Man in the Moon the adventures of Domingo Ganzales. Having failed to make his fortune in the Americas, Ganzales travels back to Spain only to become shipwrecked on an island. He harnesses some large birds, in the hope that they will fly him back to civilisation. The birds pull him up and up, but instead of heading to Spain, they pull him into space. There is some science included, as once in space Ganzales becomes weightless, and although the Sun was still shining he could see the stars.
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