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Entrepreneurial view on space access [17

Currently, there is a difference of opinion on how to lower the cost of space access, and who should pay for it. The debate was evident among space advocates attending the National Space Society's International Space Development Conference in 2006. NewSpace entrepreneurs like Peter Diamandis and Burt Rutan are prepared to go it alone with just private investments, whether from billionaires, venture capital, or private equity funds. In fact, Rutan, designer and builder of SpaceShipOne, contends that taxpayer-funded space research makes no sense He wants to get the aerospace industry off the government dole''. Yet, even advocates admit that smaller operations like his Scaled Composites, or Elon Musk's SpaceX, cannot alone fulfill the nation's Vision of Space Exploration goals. Space agencies have advantages of scale and funding that presently give them the leadership role in returning to the Moon permanently. Even NASA's current research on a Crew Exploration Vehicle is being criticized...

C4 Lessons Learned From These Space Entrepreneurs

For those entrepreneurs planning to enter space commerce, there are several lessons to learn from these cases of SSI and OSC. Lessons that reinforce the basics of any good business strategy. Orbital Sciences was the clear winner. Today they are a publicly traded corporation on the New York Stock Exchange with a market value of 1.48 billion. By contrast the reformed SSI only exists today as a privately held firm with only a small handful of employees. What are the insights to be learned from these two pioneering space firms First, space entrepreneurs spend a great deal of time discussing business models without really understanding their foundation. In essence they treat them as something The second key lesson and difference between the two firms was their approach to revenue. SSI followed a Field of Dreams approach in the belief that if they built their system, customers would appear to buy it. In the reality of the business environment, this is often a path to failure. At the start,...

Space entrepreneur analysis

Entrepreneurs, often working out of their garages, built the global, high-tech industries. And it appears now the same is happening with regard to space enterprise. Entrepreneurialism is a manifestation of the innate human sense of curiosity and discovery. In his book, The Discovers, historian Daniel Boorstin expressed admiration for the amateur or expert willing to try something new 7 Every true discoverer Challenges and realities in space enterprises 413 Exhibit 109. PRIVATE LAUNCH ENTREPRENEURS. Exhibit 109a. Private launch entrepreneurs. The successful flights, in 2004, of Scaled Composites' SpaceShipOne, the brainchild of aerospace engineer Burt Rutan, generated enormous media and industry interest in space tourism. Since those epic flights, Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group and Scaled Composites have signed an agreement to form Virgin Galactic, a company that will own and operate privately built spaceships, modelled on the remarkable SpaceShipOne. Here SpaceShipOne glides down...

Crawling into Suborbit The Baby Spaceplane

For those who would defame the development of spaceplanes, especially suborbital ones, it behooves me to insert a few words here in their defense. It may seem that such vehicles are nothing more than the space toys of rich entrepreneurs, a contrivance of those with too much time and too much money on their hands. In truth, suborbital spaceplanes represent the first toddling steps in the development of real spaceships. We are talking about vessels that, marshalling immense energies, will one day ply the interplanetary spaceways and sail the cosmic sea. We are not talking about modified ballistic missiles used to start spacecraft coasting toward their eventual targets. Suborbital spaceplanes really are baby spaceships, and as babies their abilities are understandably limited. It is entirely fitting that they would be helped into flight by the strong wing of a mothership.

Cultural Influences On Aerospace Organizations

Agencies in the private sector, the aerospace industry has experienced downsizing and restructuring, with more of the innovation coming from start-up entrepreneurial companies. Today most space enterprises, both public and private, are involved in the process of globalization, which means more international cooperation in joint ventures and agreements. So, organizational cultures and systems are becoming more transnational, each influenced by their counterparts in other countries. As a demonstration case, consider the increase in multinational agreements among global space administrations, particularly with reference to the building of the International Space Station. Such an undertaking means long-term missions, something the Russians have much experience in because of the Mir station which was in orbit for more than a decade. Thus, the Russian Federal Space Agency has agreements with NASA and ESA, as well as China and India, to exchange personnel and equipment, and to conduct joint...

Putting theory into practice

Gugliemo Marconi (1874-1937), at the time only a teenager, read about Hertz's experiments and realised that far from being a practically useless phenomenon, Hertz's discovery could be applied to the transmission of signals. With the enthusiasm of youth and the vision of a business entrepreneur he set about developing the method and by 1895, at his father's farm in Italy, had succeeded in sending wireless signals over a distance of 2 km. By 1899 he had improved the technology sufficiently to establish wireless communication across the English Channel, and in December 1901 he sent the first signals across the Atlantic.

Transforming Space Development Through Tourism

Innovations in space development. Worldwide conferences and meetings like the one pictured above bring experts and advocates together to promote technical space progress, innovation, and entrepreneurism, as well as valuable networking. Thus, on May 4, 2006, the Space Tourism Society celebrated its tenth anniversary by co-sponsoring a similar gathering in Los Angeles called the Orbit Award Program. Source Derek Webber, director of Spaceport Associates and Transformational Space Corporation (www.spaceportassociates.org or email Derek TransformSpace). Derek is pictured second from the left seated at the dais in the above photograph and is the contributor of Case Study 7.2.1. Exhibit 87. Innovations in space development. Worldwide conferences and meetings like the one pictured above bring experts and advocates together to promote technical space progress, innovation, and entrepreneurism, as well as valuable networking. Thus, on May 4, 2006, the Space Tourism Society celebrated...

Space macromangement culture

(5) Technology development timespans often have been increased, rather than condensed, because those in the space arena have become more bureaucratic, and less entrepreneurial and innovative. From goal-setting to implementation, the Apollo Moon missions were accomplished in a dozen years. Now, many space agency planners use a 15-year to 30-year timeframe from inception to completion of a new technology, while just the opposite experience occurs in the growing high-technology industry. Perhaps the time has come to re-examine the cultural assumptions on which practices of redundancy, over-design, over-preparation, over-study, and excessive timidity become imbedded habits and traditions Such matters are worsened when these approaches go beyond aerospace design and get applied even to non-technical areas, like conference management and reporting. The high frontier needs ventures that not only cut costs, but the planning time before the implementation stage. Perhaps the global ground...

Emerging macromanagement

By 2014, NASA and its partners seek to build the new crew exploration vehicle Orion to replace the Shuttle, or carry out its VSE plans to return permanently to the Moon by 2020. Not only will macromanagement strategies be needed within a culture of innovation, but managers aloft may also pioneer the process. With more corporations outside the aerospace industry participating in space ventures, all space agencies will face a unique set of interface challenges with these new stakeholders. Already space entrepreneurs expect to launch small space satellites and a variety of other commercial ventures that require creating synergy with governmental entities that control space access now. Burgeoning space technology enterprises will necessitate

Educating tomorrows macromanagers

Southern California, believes that macromanagers capture the best of global brainpower. However, schools of businesses, as well as the Academy of Management, are lagging behind in synergistic education of engineering managers. Technology or R& D managers need to become more management generalists, more open to new ideas outside their own fields and industry, more competent in emerging skills of strategic planning and management. For this to happen, schools of engineering and business will have to design comprehensive, integrated curricula which include instruction in law, political science, finance, entrepreneurialism, or technological venturing. It may be one of the central issues of 21st-century management that explains why some scholar practitioners, like the late Dr. George Kozmetsky when at the University of Texas-Austin, called for transformational management strategies 30 . There, his Institute for Constructive Capitalism fostered two progams akin to this chapter's theme (2)...

Iss Learnings In Macromanagement

Building, orbiting, maintaining. and staffing the two orbital laboratories called Mir and the International Space Station were momentous achievements, as well as awesome engineering feats that confirm the need for improved space management synergy 40 . However, given the histories of both these space stations, there must be a better way to manage space macroprojects. Building on experience in high-technology management, it will require macromanagement skills if numerous spaceports are to be constructed on the ground or in orbit, along with a lunar base in the decades ahead. That means creating a macroproject with a business focus, financial controls, adaptability, organizational cohesion, entrepreneurial culture, and a sense of integrity (as Professor Sean O'Keefe once lectured to his students at Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs). Also space agencies and corporations, as well as schools of business and engineering, will have to provide education...

F11 Attitudinal change

Sometimes this occurs by forming a strategic alliance or consortium. One such contemporary example in the Asia-Pacific launch vehicle business is Sea Launch. Established in 1995, this public-private partnership involves participation by the United States, Europe, and Russia (e.g., Boeing Commercial Space from the U.S.A., RSC Energiya of Russia, KB Yuzhnoye and PO Yuzhmash of the Ukraine, and Kvaerner of Norway) in building a ship and ocean launch platform for reliable Zenit rockets. On the high frontier, the need for synergistic partnering or alliance is essential for companies and industries so engaged, especially so for small businesses and start-up firms. It may help to explain why, in 1997, small-space-business leaders began a dialog about forming a trade group called the Space Entrepreneurs Association.

Macrochallenges On The Commercial Space Frontier

Increasingly, global space macroprojects will have to involve international partnerships and consortia, so packaged as to attract participation by venture capitalists, investors, and entrepreneurs. Instead of competition in a narrow space market, national agencies and corporations need to collaborate in joint technological ventures for ''do-able'' enterprises on the high frontier that will provide return on investment. All the current spacefaring nations have plans for lunar missions, while the U.S.A. has a national policy, Vision for Space Exploration, which calls for permanent return to the Moon by 2020. As such, this represents a macrochallenge for space commerce to meet the needs of this emerging market Department of Commerce has done studies and reports on Commercial Space Ventures Exhibit 114 describes the thinking of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation in the U.S. Department of Transportation. OCST has a public affairs program to provide the public, especially private...

F3 Lunar Economic Development Authority

Attracting venture capitalists and investors If a legal mechanism such as LEDA were in place, it could customize public information and education programs being promoted by SEDA - that is, it could finance media efforts to show the value of providing capital and investment in lunar enterprises. LEDA would act as a magnet to draw venture capitalists, financiers, and entrepreneurs to subsidize and engage in emerging lunar markets. Such activities for living and working on the Moon might extend from clothing, equipment and food systems necessary to survive and improve the quality of life in a low-gravity environment, through production of lunar oxygen and water, to building lunar ports for launching to Mars, other planets, and asteroids. Parallel to its officially-sponsored macroprojects, LEDA should stimulate a wide range of scientific, technological, and commercial endeavors related to the Moon and its colonization.

F32 How will LEDA be legally constituted

Because of the international actors involved, we recognize that three of these four scenarios may take time to be implemented, and so for the moment the third strategy described above may be the most viable. In other words, private enterprise may be best positioned to move swiftly in the creation of the prototype Lunar Economic Development Authority. If one entrepreneur could create a profitable, worldwide broadcasting network called CNN, then certainly global space and business leaders can work together to found a mechanism like LEDA for the benefit of Earth's inhabitants.

Influencing lunar policy

For that type of commitment to long-range developments on the Moon by an international consortium comprising both public and private sectors would require strategic policy decisions within the countries and organizations participating. To accomplish the kinds of lunar enterprise described above, as well as those in Chapter 10 and Appendix B, policy decisions for financing and governing the operations must come first. Conceivably, the lunar ambitions of China, Japan, and India may fast-forward the process. The predictions of my colleague Dr. Goldman are now being confirmed that new players from private enterprise will arise and positively influence such decisions they are already to be found in the communication satellite industry, commercial launching companies, space service firms and entrepreneurs, solar and nuclear energy scientists, and even in the hotel, tourism, and entertainment businesses. They will be found in downsized aerospace and defense complexes seeking a new outlet for...

What Went Wrong on the Way to the Future

Judging by predictions made over the past four decades, as of right now shuttles should have undertaken hundreds of flights the ISS should have been operational for years we should have returned to the Moon and we should be on the verge of setting off for Mars, if not already settled there. In actuality the excitement and promise of the 1960s space program is a faint memory, and many predictions about how spacefaring would be in the year 2000 have been wrong.2 Instead of a continuing series of firsts, we must content ourselves with repetitive shuttle and space station missions. The pleas of scientists and entrepreneurs who have thoughtful plans for accelerating our progress into space fall on deaf ears. To some observers, the space program is drifting if not moribund. In 1992, when McCurdy was completing this particular study, the field of management was undergoing a revolution. Efficiency and quality became overriding goals. Executives sought to strengthen values, eliminate or at...

International lunar agreements and initiatives

The legal context for any nation or consortium to carry out activities on the lunar surface is evident in the above U.N. Outer Space Treaty of 1967 (see Section 9.4). In December 1979, a second document was drafted entitled Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. Because of its anti-developmental provisions, many of the leading spacefaring nations, including the U.S.A. and the former U.S.S.R., did not sign this document prepared by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Only nine nations, largely representing developing economies, signed that resolution, while five others have yet to ratify it. In 1984, this so-called treaty went into force after being ratified by only five nations. But, in the summer of 1994, the Moon Treaty or Agreement came up for review in the U.N. General Assembly, and within the U.S. State Department. In a private letter to the author (May 18, 1995), its chairman, Peter Hohenfellner, informed me...

Private lunar initiatives

Far-sighted business leaders and entrepreneurs recognize that we are in the process of creating a twin-planet economy, and that new wealth can be gained on the Moon which will eventually contribute to a thriving and prosperous society on both bodies. But to take advantage of the lunar opportunity is a very costly and risky investment. Without the aid of the public sector, private lunar enterprise in the beginning will rely In the 21st century, there are currently few lunar entrepreneurs because of the enormous costs involved in financing a venture, and the inability to raise sufficient funds for lunar projects. This stopped a joint venture exploration mission by LunaCorp with Radio Shack from sending the Superstar telecommunications satellite to map the Moon. That also was the experience of Dennis Laurie, CEO of Transorbital, Inc. (www.transorbital.net). That was the first commercial company to receive license approval from both the U.S. State Department and NOAA to launch a mission...

The Impact of the Apollo Slowdown on KSC

The reduction took a greater toll than Debus had predicted. By mid-1970 KSC's work force had fallen to 16,235. The numbers engaged in Apollo launch operations showed an even steeper decline, 50 from the 17,000 high of 1968. KSC civil service employment dropped less sharply in FY 1970, from 2,920 to 2,880. One reason NASA had contracted a large amount of Apollo work had been to avoid an excess of civil service personnel at the end of the program. Subsequently civil service enrollment at KSC was forced down to 2,425 by the end of the program. Newspapers captioned the plight of Brevard County Cocoa Beach Boom Reaches Perigee Most of Brevard in Gloomy Mood Depressed Brevard Banks on Space Shuttle. Reporters described long lines at the employment office and a buyer's market of empty homes and stores. The articles were exaggerated unemployment never exceeded 6.5 . Realtors and the Chamber of Commerce launched an aggressive campaign in metropolitan newspapers, describing Brevard homes as the...

Lunar Economic Development Authority

Interestingly, a space policy analyst for the Washington Dispatch, Mark Whittington, has written that a Lunar Exploration and Development Authority would be helpful in opening up the high frontier 32 . This proposed LEDA has the emphasis on exploration, not economic development as does the above LEDA. He considers such a worthwhile mechanism for carrying out White House Space Transportation Policy (STP). The Administration's committee which examines ways to implement its Vision for Space Exploration is chaired by Admiral Craig Steidle. That group is concerned about how to open space enterprise, markets, and ultimately self-supporting activities,'' which is also the purpose of this LEDA proposal. This strategy, like the other LEDA, is to encourage commercial development on the Moon, and through that improve the Earth's economy. STP states the government will refrain from activities that have commercial applications, so as to involve the private sector in the design and development...

Earth support enterprises

One promising possibility is the new technology available for telepresence.4 To cut down on costly and sometime dangerous business travel, the old technology of videoconferencing has been updated and gone high-tech, with increased speed and quality of transmission, as well as improved, high-definition screens and reception. It creates the impression among participants that they are in the same room, though individuals or groups may be very far apart. It would be the perfect communication technology to reduce the distance in cislunar space If the R& D were undertaken now between earthkind and spacefarers on the International Space Station, then it might be feasible to introduce a working system for the benefit of lunar workers and settlers by the end of the next decade. Such telepresence could not only improve business and management conferencing between Earth and the Moon, but benefit families and friends in both locations to maintain relations. It would be a counterpoint to the...

The End of the Cold

JPL had always nurtured an entrepreneurial spirit, apparent in references to marketing of proposals and jokes about branding with the Mariner Mark II series, seeking to capitalize on the Mariner name without really using its technological inheritance.32 But appeals to business models multiplied in the 1990s, together with more concrete expressions of commercial enterprise in Caltech's increased licensing activity and the policy encouraging spin-off companies to cash in on JPL technologies. The use of an economic market system instead of centralized allocation of resources on Cassini exemplified the trend.

Technical Issues Reducing the Cost of Accessing Space

The need to reduce the high cost of accessing space is very apparent to aerospace engineers, mission planners, and space entrepreneurs around the world. What is not so clear, however, is how best to tackle the challenge of reducing the prohibitively high cost of delivering people and cargo into low Earth orbit and to orbital destinations beyond near-Earth space. At present, access to space is provided by a variety of expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) and the world's only partially reusable aerospace vehicle, the U.S. Space Transportation System (STS), or space shuttle.

Ql Millennial Time Capsule

They have often suggested the establishment of mineral enrichment facilities, laboratories and factories for activities ranging from processing helium-3 and conducting hazardous biological experiments to manufacturing propellant, solar arrays, and building components. Recently, a new wave of entrepreneurs have been contemplating using the Moon for profitable ventures, including tourism, recreation, and other cultural activities, in an effort to embrace the cislunar domain as part of the landscape for routine human activities in the new millennium. Radio stations and even lunar cemeteries have been proposed of late. A new rationale for lunar bases is being sought.

C1 Dawn Of The Spage

Entrepreneurs have a long association with the development of space. The first efforts to develop practical reusable rockets date to rocket mail ventures in the 1920s and 1930s. However, neither the technology nor markets were right for space commerce, so space quickly became a government activity, first in Germany, then in the United States and Russia. But the dream of space enterprise never faded and one of President's Kennedy's goals in his famous speech on national space goals (May 1961) was the development of a network of communication satellites 1 . Although not as well remembered as the goal of landing a man on the Moon, it has turned out to be a legacy that perhaps surpasses it. Although the modern space commerce era began in 1962, activity in the first couple of decades was limited to large corporations. The high levels of investment, high levels of technology risk and long payback periods made it an environment that was not suited to small entrepreneurs. It wasn't until the...

Michael Griffin and orbiting fuel depots

Michael Griffin points out that in the future, when the lunar program is in operation, there will be two major missions to the lunar outpost per year, and each of these entails launching the crew on a 25 mT launcher, and the Earth departure stage and additional payload on a 125mT SDHLV. About half of the mass sent to LEO consists of propellants for Earth departure. For two missions per year, the annual cost of sending the Earth departure propellants to LEO is estimated to be about 2.5B based on an estimate of 10,000 kg. He suggests that this potential 2.5B year market would be attractive to private entrepreneurs.

Al Beyond Imperialism Beyond Space Colonies

Should begin by formulating an acceptable and workable Migratory Manifesto that creates an infrastructure between terrestrial humans and humankind in space, including their supporting national governments and international governmental organizations. Such an infrastructure must also address the governing relationships of space societies communities, as well as their private entrepreneurial underwriters. We are literally building a bridge between worlds, as Exhibit 142 illustrates.

Private Publicsector cooperation in space commerce

The longer we operate in space and stay aloft, the more innovative and entrepreneurial will be the ways humans discover to capitalize on space as a place and as a resource. At the Russian space station, cosmonauts have already learned to make more than a hundred different alloys and metal mixtures thought impossible to manufacture, plus very pure crystal and glass lenses. Space-business devotees are constantly coming up with unique ways for extraterrestrial exploitation, from burials, banks. and Earth truck-tracking systems to lunar mass-drivers and large optical telescopes. Arthur C. Clarke, father of the communication satellite concept, proposes PEACESAT satellites to monitor military incursions, nuclear accidents, and other inappropriate activities which threaten world peace among the planet's 150 nations. He envisions two-dimensional communication networks from space contributing to the rise of the Global Family or Tribe in which members are linked electronically across national...

F2 Space Economic Development Authorities

One example of a spaceport authority is the California Spaceport Authority, which manifests entrepreneurial innovation to take advantage of the launch facilities of the Vandenberg Air Force Base and other such nearby USAF bases. To protect the economy of Santa Barbara County, the Western Commercial Space Center was initially formulated as a non-profit corporation. It then succeeded in getting the State of California to pass legislation in 1993, which chartered the California Spaceport Authority. Although OEDA was projected as a year 2050 solution, our Regent from USIS Russia, Dr. Oleg Alifanov, proposed a more immediate use for this entity. Alifanov and his colleagues at the Moscow Aviation Institute ran a feasibility study based on an innovative possibility rather than terminating the Mir space station as planned, why not upgrade and commercialize this orbiting facility under private auspices, such as OEDA In that scenario, the International Space Station would be sponsored by the...

Introducing electronics into medicine

A Professor of Physics at Princeton University, his 1997 book The High Frontier popularised the idea of looking at near-Earth space ''not as a void but as a cultural medium rich in matter and energy.'' O'Neill argued strongly that the colonisation of space was an obvious solution to many of Earth's problems such as over-population, fossil fuel depletion and pollution. He was a supporter of creating space colonies equidistant between the Earth and the Moon known as Lagrange 5 or L5. A pilot, inventor, author, advisor, entrepreneur and teacher, his ashes were aboard one of the Space Service Inc. memorial space flights launched in 1997.

Visions of the Future

What will the first settlers be like Traditionally, military personnel have been the first to enter new, unusual, and potentially dangerous environments. In recent times, scientists and entrepreneurs have come next. We might expect that when emigration begins in earnest, space will draw people who are restless and who see opportunity for a better life. The same sort of people who stow away on ships or scale walls to find freedom and economic security on Earth may be among the first wholesale volunteers for space. We might also expect adventurous people who want to do something worthwhile the same kind of people who enlist in the Civilian Conservation Corps or Peace Corps. But in the long run, space is for everyone.

Surveys and data archives the virtual observatory

Formed in June 2002 with over 16 member countries, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has the goal of facilitating international coordination and collaboration for the development of the tools, systems, and organizational structures needed to enable an integrated, worldwide, virtual observatory with access to enormous data archives. As Robert Hanisch, project manager of the U.S. National Virtual Observatory, and Peter Quinn, director of the ESO Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, state in a 2003 introduction to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), what astronomy is facing is a data avalanche''. Moore's Law is driving astronomy as much as it is the semiconductor industry. Moore's Law is the empirical observation made in 1965 by Gordon E. Moore (co-founder of Intel) that the number of transistors on a chip seemed to be doubling annually. He later modified the estimate to a doubling rate of every two years in 1975. Although in no sense a physical law,...

Biosphere 2 private enterprise

One of the most interesting, comprehensive, and longest experiments in isolated, confined environments was conducted under private auspices in Oracle, Arizona (see Exhibit 77). Located in the American southwest near the foothills of Catalina Mountains on SunSpace Ranch, just 50 km north of Tucson, the enterprise was funded by Texas billionaire Ed Bass, a co-designer of Disney's Epcot Center. Under the name Space Biosphere Ventures, scientists, architects, ecotechnicians, and entrepreneurs put together a 150 million project. The founders considered the Earth the first biosphere, and called their undertaking Biosphere 2 27 . On a 12,000 m2 area of land, they built a glass-enclosed ecological system, with laboratories or biomes for rainforest, savannah, marine, marsh, desert, agriculture, and human habitat. In Spring 1991, this miniature world was tested for its ability to recycle and maintain environments (air, water, and nutrients ) supporting 4,000 inhabitant species of plants Plans...

Reusable Launch Vehicle RLV

The first generation of RLVs promises to deliver payloads into low Earth orbit at a projected cost that is at least 50 percent less than the lowest current cost of accessing space. Aerospace engineers further project that the second generation of RLVs (available perhaps by the year 2025) should reduce this cost by another 50 percent at a minimum. If these projections hold, by the year 2025, we could ship cargo into low Earth orbit for less than 250 per kilogram. This favorable transportation cost should greatly expand the commercial application of space technology and encourage a new generation of space entrepreneurs.

The rise of commercial spaceflight

The ongoing Soyuz launches with passengers paying 20 million a time has proved too tempting to resist. For their money, those who can afford it get an intensive programme of preparation at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre and a trip to the ISS in the spare seat of a Soyuz TMA spacecraft. Attitudes aboard the ISS have changed since the first space tourist, US entrepreneur Dennis Tito, was grudgingly accepted by NASA. Today, tourists are made more welcome and given mundane but useful tasks to help with the running of the station. Despite the high cost, the Russian Space Agency has a waiting list for its flights, and since Tito's mission The X Prize appears to have done its job, for even before the qualifying flights British entrepreneur Richard Branson fixed a deal with TierOne to develop a larger SpaceShipTwo for use by Virgin Galactic, a commercial tourism venture. Other X Prize runners-up have also taken their

Life on the High Frontier

With the possible exception of politicians and officious government bureaucrats, a minimalist democracy offers something for everyone. The poor and dispossessed of the world become enfranchised and gain some control over their lives. Middle-class people can live without having to support the indigent and without mistreatment at the hands of large governmental bureaucracies. Wealthy people can see increased freedom to pursue entrepreneurial goals, unfettered by needless laws and regulatory agencies. If the vision actually materializes, then almost everyone will win.

Space Habitability And Life Sciences

Just remember that since 1961, only about 460 men and women have actually gone beyond Earth into outer space. So far they have represented some 40 nations in the course of approximately 267 journeys offworld provided largely under government auspices. Only two dozen humans have soared beyond low-Earth orbit, and none since the last Moon landing in 1972. Yet, several space agencies are planning a lunar return, and entrepreneurs expect space tourists in other LEOs and GEOs. As hundreds, then thousands, and finally millions move off Earth, out into our Solar System, human habitability aloft will become a critical concern

The Commercialization of JPL

Several others factors also helped to commercialize JPL. The post-cold war environment that encouraged the celebration of the private sector also sparked an entrepreneurial spirit, which impelled efforts to apply JPL technologies to civilian products. The usual route ran through patents, which Caltech would license to industry for a fee or royalties. The number of licenses rose more or less steadily starting in the early 1990s, especially for software, which increased from about 10 in 1992 to 180 by 1996.67 A few years earlier the lab had also started programs for technology affiliates and other cooperative agreements with industry, under which JPL helped firms, usually small companies, develop new technologies. The lab had thirty corporations as technology affiliates by 1992, sixty by 1994, most of them not from the aerospace industry but seeking help in such fields as software, robotics, microdevices, or remote sensing.68 Licensing activity greatly increased after the institute...

Conclusions about North American space vision and ethos

For Pan America to create a vibrant space vision and ethos, U.S. space leadership needs to start with its closest neighbors, Canada and Mexico. Like NAFTA, perhaps consideration should be given to formulating a North American Space Enterprise Agreement (NASEA) Then perhaps these three nations might turn south to Latin America, helping students, scientists, and entrepreneurs there to meet the quintessential challenges of space science, technology, commerce, and settlement. Brazil may be the first collaborator because of its existing space interests and investments.

Future space administration and governance

One such proposal in the matter of space governance has been promoted by both the World Bar Association and the United Societies in Space Inc. of Castlerock, Colorado. This strategy, discussed in Chapter 7, would create a space metanation to protect the common heritage of humankind (CHOM). Such a concept was not foreseen in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty signed by 100 nations, including the U.S.A., but was later incorporated into the Moon Agreement of 1979. CHOM as a term of art'' was defined in the U.N. agreement on the Law of the Seas in 1982, signed by the U.S.A. in 1995. Under the rules of treaty law, it would apparently be applicable also to astrolaw, or the laws and regulations developed in the future by offworld inhabitants. The difficulty comes in the application of this concept which requires an active sharing of space resources and properties for the benefit of humankind''. Some interpret such provisions as curbing space development, for there would be no incentives for...

The strategy of space authorities

It is a way to use our interplanetary common'' for the benefit of earthkind in the 21st century 31 . Then, we would put institutions in place to empower scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, or settlers to go aloft and utilize space resources. To facilitate living and working in isolated, confined, sensitive environments, like the Moon, the legal and governance prototypes already exist (e.g., in the Antarctic Treaty (1958-1961), with its protocols and organizations, as well as in the Tennessee Valley Authority). The Antarctic Treaty provides the legal framework for the area south of 60 S latitude on this planet, reserving the region for peaceful purposes and encouraging international cooperation in scientific research there. The other model is the TVA, authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1947 with a Board of Governors appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. When it was founded, the United States Government not only donated land and facilities for...

The Search for a New Home

What kind of signals are these scientists likely to receive According to SETI astronomer Ron Hipschman, There are really two possibilities. Either the other civilizations are intentionally sending out a signal that is expressly meant to get our attention, or, like us, they just happen to be doing their own business and some of their signals are 'leaking out.'33 As an example, Hipschman points out that over the past fifty years or so, all broadcast television shows have been radiating out from Earth at the speed of light the earliest broadcasts have already traveled fifty light-years, roughly 300 trillion miles, from Earth. Although not yet very far compared to the billions of light-years between galaxies, at some point in time they may be detected by intelligent beings who may wish to signal back. What will an alien signal be like Hipschman admits no one knows

Culture A Coping Strategy

That creatures are better at inventing and surviving when so challenged to move beyond boundaries, like to outer space. Multinational, multidisciplinary studies are under way to apply terrestrial analogs to offworld living prospects that may accelerate human development. The European Space Agency, for instance, uses the Norwegian Underwater Technology Centre. There scientists from the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems supervise the ESA astronaut training, such as the German Thomas Reiter, who was aloft for 179 days on Mir. The Japanese were among the first to plan for space tourism, with companies such as Shimizu Corporation designing spaceports and orbiting hotels, while Obayashi Corporation designed a lunar city for 10,000 inhabitants. Unfortunately for the Japanese, they have lost the lead in space tourism to American, Russian, and British entrepreneurs (see Appendix C). Movement from the home planet offworld for whatever reasons, exploration, science, commerce, or...

Hancock

Named in memory of Langley George (Lang) Hancock (1909-1992), who started life as manager of the family sheep station and became a leading Australian mining prospector, entrepreneur and visionary. He prospected for and developed many minerals, but he will be forever famous for his discovery of the massive iron ore deposits in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Hancock had a profound influence on the development of Western Australia, establishing several newspapers and writing many books and other publications on mining and free enterprise. The family corporation is now chaired by daughter Georgina Rinehart, who prepared the citation. (M 22246)

JPL and Scientists

When Lew Allen arrived at JPL in 1982 he noted the increasingly important role of flight experiments and set about updating JPL's statement of objectives. Pickering had defined three main goals in 1963 flight projects the Deep Space Network and supporting research and development. Allen now added two more scientific study of space and the earth, and defense and other selected national priorities such as energy.28 In 1984 Allen supplied another indicator of the trend by appointing atmospheric scientist Moustafa Chahine as chief scientist, to replace Caltech planetary geologist Arden Al-bee. Then in 1987 Allen elevated the technical division for earth and space science, led by Charles Elachi, to a new program office for space science and instruments. Elachi's entrepreneurship had parlayed the synthetic aperture radar and other instruments into a thriving flow of new business he observed the following year that over the last several years, the instrument activity at JPL has expanded...

Conclusion

Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Mr Madhavan Nair, Chairman, ISRO Secretary, Department of Space for having given ideas of developing community centric EO applications and also the opportunity to conceive this manuscript. The authors also thankfully acknowledge contributors from ISRO family and the entire Indian EO community comprising Central State Government Departments, Academia, Private Entrepreneur, Non-Governmental Organizations, etc, who have been helpful in taking India's EO to a greater height.

Bobbell

Bell, friend and associate of the discoverer's husband. Bob Bell graduated from the California Institute of Technology with a B.S. in physics and an M.S. in applied mechanics, which he promptly utilized to invent pressure-sensing devices to monitor automobile-engine functions, enabling us to drive efficiently down our highways. More recently he has joined the astronomical community with his own private dome and CCD-equipped telescope. Bob is the quintessential entrepreneur, applying and promoting new ideas to solve problems. (M 28090)

Corporate rescues

Iridium secured 3 billion to keep it afloat during the rescue effort, but the company was wound up in March 2000 after the telecommunications entrepreneur Craig McCaw declined his support.104,1 5 Of the 78 satellites that had been launched, 12 were no longer operational, and it was decided to de-orbit those that were functional in order to preclude their becoming orbital debris.106 However, in December 2000 a venture capital start-up called Iridium Satellites took over the bankrupted Iridium Incorporated,107 and in March 2001 it purchased the assets for 25 million. The

Rocket renaissance

Relative to personal spaceflight, Popular Science magazine's editor said it best about the long-term possibilities when SpaceShipOne (see photograph in Exhibit 109) and its White Knight spacecraft won the Ansari X-Prize Some of the boldest, most mind-blowing innovations we've ever surveyed '' Having made history with the first manned private spaceflight, despite a plant fire in 2008, Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites still has a commitment of 1 billion to build a fleet of SpaceShipTwo vehicles, which are powered by a hybrid rocket, partially filled with solid fuel, but no oxidant (www.scaled.com contactus.php). Because this may be safer for his passengers, Sir Richard Branson has ordered five of these vehicles at a cost of 240 million. The latter's Virgin Galactic spaceline has already banked 15.6m in passenger reservations even before that spaceliner has flown a suborbital flight. At a ticket price of possibly 1000,000- 200,000 each, the six people, plus two pilots, will get a few days...

F1 Introduction

Expanding human enterprise on the space frontier during the twenty-first century will require attitudinal change on the part of planners and entrepreneurs, as well as new synergistic relationships and institutions. Dictionaries define enterprise as a plan, program, or project of some importance that is underway or to be undertaken, requiring readiness, boldness, and energy. Such an explanation admirably fits space enterprise, whether it is building spacecraft or robotic systems, off-world missions of exploration and discovery, or industrialization and settlement aloft. In his book on the subject, David Gump maintains that we are entering a new era of free enterprise aloft that will create an orbital economy. To open and develop new space markets also calls for people who are enterprising - that is, ready to engage in financial and technological ventures with imagination and initiative. To succeed in such endeavors demands strategic planning and management, characterized by thinking...

New Space business

The above is almost a profile of space entrepreneurs in general. Today the entrepreneurial space industry is commonly called by its advocates NewSpace 9 . The emphasis at the moment is suborbital and orbital vehicles, space travel and tourism, and orbital services and structures (see Appendices for further information). The industry will address emerging concerns and needs aloft or on the ground, such as with building and improving spaceports. The concerns cover a wide range from safe spaceflight and accident prevention, to coping with varied amounts of radiation and government regulations. Public space agencies can inhibit or facilitate this growing industry as partner, customer, or investor. One template for NewSpace is NASA's competitive program, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, which awards contracts to private firms. In 2006, COTS awarded nearly 500 million to Rocket-plane Kistler (RpK) and Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) to aid in development vehicles for the...

Tim Puckett

Since 1989 he has owned and operated numerous CCD cameras. Currently, Puckett operates an automated Super Nova patrol and Comet Astrometry program with 60-cm and 35-cm robotic telescopes. He is a small business owner in Atlanta, Georgia, outside of which he operates the Puckett Observatory in the Appalachian Mountains. Puckett is also currently working as a robotic telescope consultant to many professional institutions

F7 Endnotes

1 For information on the Space Entrepreneurs Association, contact David Anderman at the Space Frontier Foundation (e-mail DavidA5625 aol.com), or USIS Regent, Michael Simon at International Space Enterprises (4909 Murphy Canyon Rd., Ste. 220, San Diego, CA 92123, U.S.A e-mail Michael isecorp.com). To get on list server for the electronic exchange on SEA contact Jim Benson (e-mail scia SpaceDev.Com).

Pathfinder

As Galileo arrived at Jupiter the Pathfinder project entered its prelaunch homestretch with a firmer seat in the saddle. The spacecraft and rover teams came together in the skunk works and developed a remarkable camaraderie, and Spear's willingness to delegate responsibility and elide bureaucratic boundaries fostered a sense of teamwork. One longtime JPL manager who worked with Pathfinder summed up the common sentiment It was the most fun project I ever worked on, far and away. . . . The whole spirit on that project was just a bunch of entrepreneurs figuring out, hey, what do we do next 47 The youth of the team promoted this spirit. Pathfinder's younger engineers reflected JPL's changing demographics and also perhaps the fact that more experienced engineers were working on Cassini or doubted Pathfinder's odds.48 Youth brought computer savvy veteran engineers knew spacecraft computers, but fresh college graduates in the early 1990s were the first generation to grow up with personal...

Collaborate

The Internet has opened up a whole new world in terms of collaboration. Longdistance cyberspace friendships can be of real value when it comes to entering near-Earth space. Communicating through the World-Wide Web was never easier, and such communication has never been cheaper. This factor alone means that collaborations, especially international ones, will be possible like never before. Snippets of information can be instantaneously transferred between continents, enabling the space entrepreneur to share knowledge and ideas at light speed. Those who jealously guard their ideas will only be hurting themselves. Lessons can be taken from both the Wright brothers and Goddard, in this respect (Fig. 11.7).

Down In The Valley

One third of the way down the valley on the east side lies the perennially sleepy but spiritually restless town of Crestone. Cradled in the forest beneath the dramatic peaks of the Sangres, and blessed by several rushing mountain streams, Crestone is a power spot (as are Taos, New Mexico, and Sedona, Arizona) that attracts aliens, hippies, and New Age entrepreneurs. These days, you can get about a hundred types of massage and a good latte at most power spots perfect after a long drive through the desert or a journey of many light-years in a cramped saucer.

Space Hotels

Once spaceplanes have reached the stage at which they are capable of orbital operations, the space hotel will be their natural destination. Wealthy space entrepreneur Robert Bigelow has both the means and the desire to see this kind of future unfurl - or in his case, inflate. His space hotel designs are essentially portable, inhabitable balloons, delivered to low Earth orbit in compact packages by conventional rocket. Once inflated, they promise to provide the luxurious accommodations expected by future space tourists. For those with the monetary means, the orbital sojourn promises to deliver the experience of a lifetime at bargain rates. The weekly charge in the Bigelow Sundancer, for example, is expected to be a reasonable 8 million. The Sundancer will provide 6,400 ft3 of floating space and three windows, to accommodate a crew of three and three space guests. The proto-hotels Genesis I and Genesis II have already been launched into low Earth orbit, the latter with a cadre of...

C6 References

Peter Diamandis has forecast that the next race into space will be led by entrepreneurs, members of the private sector, who envision the high frontier as an opportunity for expansion and vast wealth creation. Some of these leaders have already emerged from among the new billionaires who benefited from high-tech innovations. Beside the NewSpace enterprises, many of the start-up companies will come out of the older aerospace technologies and corporations. Let us examine just one XCOR Aerospace based at the Mojave Spaceport and Civilian Aerospace Test Center in California. It has improved on traditional rocket technology to create the EZ-Rocket for manned flying vehicles. Its engines are fueled with isopropyl alcohol and liquid oxygen. The alcohol is stored in an external composite fuel tank, and the LOX is contained in an insulated internal aluminum liquid oxygen tank. The EZ-Rocket is incorporated into XERUS, a multi-mission suborbital spacecraft with many safety features. Its...

Robbynaish

Hawaiian Robby Naish (1963- ) is known in the international windsurfing community as a competitor and an entrepreneur. Five-time world champion of the Professional Windsurfing Association, he is also a pioneer kitesurfer and won the 2000 King of the Air competition on Maui. (M 42359) The name was suggested by R. Crane.

Acknowledgements

Corporations such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman,Loral and Oceaneering Space Systems are engineering leaders in the space systems arena and Alenia Spazio, Deutche Aerospace, Daimler, EADS, BAE, and Marconi should also be mentioned. Corporations such as Bechtel, Fluor, Jacobs, Parsons, Halliburton, Caterpillar, and Shimizu, with experience in large infrastructure development projects, have long had an interest in extraterrestrial economic activity. In the USA, the Aerospace Corp. plays a unique role in evaluating competing concepts and certifying complex space projects. Equally important, space entrepreneurs who are creating new companies, such as SpaceDev, Bigelow Aerospace, Rocketplane Kistler, SpaceX, Virgin Intergalactic, and many others, are blazing a trail for the future through their pioneering efforts in commercializing space transportation.

Space Tourism

Bigelow Nasa Nautilus

(RpK) has assembled a formidable team headed by Chief Executive Officer, George French, a previous winner of the NASA AMES Research Astrobiology Team Group Achievement Award and the National Space Society's Entrepreneur of the Year Award. President, retired Colonel Randy Brinkley, served as NASA Program Manager for the International Space Station (ISS), as well as Mission Director of the Hubble Space Telescope Repair Mission. RpK's resident astronaut is Commander (USN Ret.) John Herrington, RpK's Vice President of Flight Operations and Services. It will be Herrington who pilots the winner of a Microsoft Corp. sponsored competition (http vanishingpointgame.com) on their trip to space. Before that happens though, RpK has to achieve its goal of bringing its Rocketplane XP to operational status.

Prologue

So after millions of years as terrestrial beings Homo sapiens in ever increasing numbers is beginning to migrate offworld. Human enterprise in space, so far, is manifested in both unmanned and manned activities. It is the creative human mind that is responsible for launching automated spacecraft to far-off planets, as much as for the building and staffing of a space shuttle or station. Extraterrestrial human activity increasingly involves artists, architects, film makers and entrepreneurs, as well as planetary scientists, engineers, technicians, and aerospace planners. The business leaders, managers, and entrepreneurs concerned about challenges in space commerce

Space education

As part of its EuroMir 95 mission, the ESA arranged for young people in its member states to come to Disneyland Paris for a space education entertainment event that culminated with a live satellite link-up with the then Russian space station Mir. Dr. Sally Ride, first American woman astronaut in space, had a NASA project involving cameras installed on the Shuttle Orbiter, which was exclusively operated by students these cameras instantaneously relayed high-resolution data to classrooms in high and middle schools throughout the country. Ride hoped by this method to ''give students their own piece of the space program.'' The Young Astronauts Council currently operates ''Space School'', a distance-learning method that uses Space Age technology to teach math and science, as well as to beam quality educational adventures. This educational programming comes from Seattle, Washington, and through satellite television is transmitted into classrooms nationally. Entrepreneurial companies are...