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A reference book giving basic data for bodies of the Solar System. Lodders, K. and Fegley, B. The Planetary Scientist's Companion. Oxford University Press, 1998. A compact book of facts and figures about the main bodies of the Solar System, including details such as atmosphere profiles, and providing copious references. Emphasizes geochemistry but steps around fields such as planetary magnetospheres. Moroz, V. I., Huntress, W. T. and Shevalev, I. L. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century....

Hayabusa Musesc and Minerva

Hayabusa (called MUSES-C prior to launch) is a Japanese near-Earth asteroid sample-return mission that includes a small mobile surface element. It carries a horn-shaped sampling mechanism that, after contact with the surface, fires small projectiles to collect the ejecta for return to Earth in a re-entry capsule. The MINERVA hopping rover - at 591 g the lightest ever planetary vehicle - was due to be deployed during descent to the surface. Hayabusa had also been due to carry a Small Science...

Payload delivery penetrators

Payload delivery penetrators are bullet-shaped vehicles designed to penetrate a surface and emplace experiments at some depth. The basic technology for these has existed for several decades based largely on military heritage (e.g. Simmons, 1977 Murphy et al., 1981a Bogdanov et al., 1988), however only in the mid 1990s did proposals for their use in Solar System exploration begin to be adopted for actual flight. In the US, Mars penetrators were studied for several years (and, indeed, field...

Deep Space 2 Mars Microprobes

The DS-2 mission was the second 'Deep Space' mission in NASA's New Millennium technology validation programme (Smrekar et al., 1999). It was to demonstrate miniaturized penetrators to enable subsurface and network science. The spacecraft that flew were radically smaller - by two orders of magnitude -than anything NASA had previously flown to the planets. The project cost a remarkably modest 29.6 million. The original concept anticipated deployment at low latitude on Mars, and a payload...

Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner

The Mars Pathfinder mission began as MESUR (Mars Environmental Survey), a 1991 proposal for a network of as many as 16 Mars landers to perform network science (meteorology and seismology on distributed sites) using nominally inexpensive landers. One prominent approach to reducing the unit cost of the landers was to use a semi-hard landing approach with airbags rather than a retrorocket system. The landing system proposed was sufficiently radical that a technology demonstration flight validation...

Problems encountered

Anomalous Articulation

Although neither rover has yet to match the distance record set by Lunokhod 2, the smaller Martian rovers encounter significantly more problems arising from the dusty nature of Mars. Firstly, the progressive obscuration of the solar panels by airborne dust leads to a fall-off in the available power, mitigated somewhat by the beneficial but random action of transient aeolian phenomena, which appear to clear some of the material from the rovers. Secondly, the Lunokhod wheels were not exposed to...

Panoramic camera Pancam

From their vantage point 1.5 m above the Martian surface, the Pancam is able to make multi-spectral exposures of up to 30 seconds. Their angular resolution of 0.0164 rivals the acuity of the human eye and each camera is able to focus from 1.5 m to infinity over a field of view over 16 by 16 in angular size. Each camera Figure 27.2. The location of the Athena payload instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers. Figure 27.2. The location of the Athena payload instruments on the Mars Exploration...

Bibliography

In addition to the sources cited in Part I for particular engineering aspects of planetary landers, and in Parts II and III for particular missions, we present below a selection of books and other sources that the reader might find useful. For detailed presentation of spacecraft and mission design, there are various texts available. All are good, but none are completely satisfactory in terms of covering all Andreyanov, V. V., Artamonov, V. V., Atmanov, I. T. et al., Avtomaticheskiye Planetnyye...

Atmosphere models

Clearly the design of heatshields and parachute systems requires assumptions on the density structure of the atmosphere to be encountered. Thus atmospheric models must be constructed as a design basis - these models must provide the extreme range of conditions likely to be encountered, since extremes in any direction may drive the design. Where in situ data from prior missions is available (e.g. at Mars and Venus) this of course adds considerable confidence to the model. More generally, as for...

Rosetta Lander Philae

ESA's Rosetta mission was launched on 2 March 2004, and is destined to reach its target comet, 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in 2014. The lander of the Rosetta mission, named Philae, is expected to be deployed around November 2014, to make the first ever controlled landing on a comet nucleus. En route, the mission's interplanetary trajectory takes in four gravity assists, three at Earth and one at Mars, and two asteroid flybys. Having matched the comet's orbit, Rosetta will close in to perform a...

System requirements

The total energy requirement of a mission (i.e. its integrated power requirement) is the most fundamental parameter for designing the power system. If that energy requirement is sufficiently low, the primary energy source can be practicably provided as chemically stored energy - it is practical to drive a wristwatch with a battery, but a washing machine or stove cannot be practically driven this way. The condition 'practicable' is determined usually by mass and volume constraints. For higher...

Example direct descent Surveyor

Pre-retro manoeuvre 30 mins before touchdown to align main retro with flight path Main retro start by altitude-marking radar which ejects from nozzle. Craft stabilized by vernier engines Main retro start by altitude-marking radar which ejects from nozzle. Craft stabilized by vernier engines 6O miles, 61OO mph (96 km, 273O m s) Main retro burnout and ejection. Vernier engines control descent 25 OOO ft, 24O mph (7.6 km, 1O7 m s) 25 OOO ft, 24O mph (7.6 km, 1O7 m s) Figure 5.1. Surveyor descent...

Destructive impact probes

The mission of a destructive impact probe ends successfully with a vehicle or even just a passive projectile being destroyed on impact with the surface of another world. The first destructive impact probe was Luna 2, which, along with the launcher's upper stage, impacted the Moon in 1959. Luna 2 hit the surface at 3315 ms Blagonravov, 1968 , demonstrated by the loss of the radio signal. Rangers 6-9 impacted the Moon a few years later, obtaining in the case of 7, 8, 9 close-up images of the...