When asked how his interest in astronomy came about, the answer came quickly. ''I was always fascinated with the questions 'What's around the next bend What's out there beyond Earth Are there people somewhere in the stars ' Maybe I found my forced studies boring, and retreated to that in which I could find some stimulation.''6 Having completed primary school in 1949, Gibson graduated to Kenmore High School on Highland Parkway, but he was still indecisive about what direction he wanted to take in life. However, the thought of flying with the Air Force had held a youthful appeal for him, although he admits he had not truly knuckled down to his studies at this stage of his life. ''When I got to high school I improved my performance a little bit, and finally learned through several sad experiences that I had to study if I was going to get anywhere. I was still oriented toward science and math, but this did not translate itself into a firm commitment to excel in my studies. I liked...
An observing log taken in the field should be simple and concise. You are taking it as you observe so keep it small and brief. It should be just enough to jog your memory from the night before as you read it. As I go through this log, even years after I took these notes, it helps me to remember key things I saw in the sky that night. This can be extra helpful when dealing with objects that change over time, like comets and planets. Note the vital statistics, such as what you saw, when you saw it, where was it in the sky, how bright and how big it was, how good the seeing (1-5, with 5 being best) was and anything noteworthy. Each one of these lines was typed in Excel in the field in just a few seconds.
A generalization of this approach, tried in the 1980s by Loh and Spillar, but refined enough for widespread use only in the mid-1990s, is determination of so-called photometric redshifts. Galaxy spectra have only a limited range of properties, being to a good approximation a one-parameter family and to an excellent approximation a In view of its importance, and discrepancies in addressing this issue, a variety of techniques must be brought to bear in tracing the cosmic history of star formation. Infrared observations are particularly important, being insensitive to dust absorption and in fact relying on it by measuring the total amount of starlight which has been absorbed to heat interstellar dust. In our neighborhood, strong far-infrared emission is a hallmark of star-forming galaxies, and submillimeter observations have traced IR-selected galaxies to objects so faint that their redshifts cannot be accurately measured yet. Mid-infrared surveys of galaxies are an important goal of...
Where it may be important, colour schemes are sometimes devised with the commoner forms of colour blindness in mind. Many computer software packages, such as Word or Excel, use blue and yellow more liberally than red and green. Website designers are encouraged to use labels and variations in texture instead of relying on variations in colour. Traffic lights have red at the top and green at the bottom, so that their message can be deduced from position as well as from colour. The colour coding in mains cables has been chosen so that colour-blind people can identify the three leads correctly.
Despite these difficulties, there have been some notable successes in measuring abundances, and deriving physical information from the measurement. The most successful was the use of Einstein FPCS observations of Puppis A to show an overabundance of oxygen with respect to iron, requiring the progenitor to have a mass of more than 25 M 22 . Also of note are comprehensive analysis of Tycho data requiring ejecta 46 and the analysis of an EXOSAT observation of W49B requiring the presence of a substantial amount of shocked ejecta 151 . It is with the advent of spatially resolved spectroscopy through which shock structures can be isolated that most of the advances have taken place in our knowledge of the abundances of reverse shocked ejecta and forward shocked ISM. ASCA was the pathfinder mission in this regard, but XMM-Newton and Chandra excel in these studies. The recent studies are providing real insight into the ejecta masses and their degree of mixing, as well as the explosion...
Since the MaxScope 90 comes with CEMAX type eyepieces, clamshell ring, Sol Ranger finder, and T-Max the only other accessories you will need are the tripod, camera, and cleaning supplies to get started. There are several third party accessories that can be purchased to further enhance the view, like binoviewers and special eyepieces. Personally, I own several different styles of eyepieces and Barlow lenses that I like to experiment with from time to time. I found hydrogen alpha monochromatic light very forgiving and a lens set that is not so good for white light viewing due to color separation works good with hydrogen alpha. Some of the cheaper accessories and Barlow lenses really excel with monochromatic light. I have found that the Antares brand 2x Barlow lens with the screw-off front lens actually provides a small brightness boost when imaging compared to my CEMAX 2x Barlow lens, Celestron Ultima, and Televue 2.5x Barlow lens.
Software for Phometric Astronomy. Richmond, VA Willmann-Bell, Inc., 1982. Once you have extracted photometric data from your images, you need to reduce the data. Although Ghedini presents his algorithms in line-numbered Basic, he provides enough theory to permit recoding reductions in Excel. Includes everything from time-of-minimum algorithms to Fourier transform period analysis. Stars. Richmond, VA Willmann-Bell, Inc., 1988. An excellent addition to the literature of photometry for amateur astronomers particularly useful for tips on observing methods.
The planet Pluto and the intense sign of Scorpio govern the month of November. You inherited a powerful will and you are attracted to the unknown the medical professions, the police force, metaphysics, politics and general investigations. You are classified as the Eagle (positive) or the Lizard (negative) in Divine Astrology. You are quite private, secretive, even mystic and like all other water signs, you excel in the study of metaphysics. Unless you are aware of your innate powers you are well advised not to sting yourself with your own dart. You carry in your soul the element of life and death, reincarnation and pure sensuality. On a negative note, your magnetic thoughts can reach anyone anywhere for good or for worse, bringing its accompanying karma
On the basis of the scientific priorities presented in this document, we recommend that ESA's Science Programme Executive issues a succession of Calls for Mission Proposals to implement Cosmic Vision 2015-2025.The pace of implementation should provide for long-sustained, confident work by scientific institutes and industry, which by tradition has enabled Europe to excel in its chosen space science projects despite budgetary limitations.
Tion spectra of stars from class B to M and luminosity class III and spans the region from Hp to about 4100 A. Several of the more prominent lines are labeled. As one can see, many lines are present, especially as one proceeds to cooler stars. Graphic display of these spectra, for example, using Excel, results in line profiles, especially for the more intense lines such as those for hydrogen. These profiles contain information regarding the physics of the stellar atmosphere. For example, buried in the line profile and intensity are such information as pressure, density, abundances and temperature, some of which, with the appropriate mathematics or software tools, can be extracted. In addition, rotation of the star is also contained within the profile, which also can be extracted 4 .
What we'll do in this section is create an Excel spreadsheet that will enable you to determine the period of a lightcurve. If you created your differential photometry with TheSky, then you can export your data into Excel and use this spreadsheet to wrap the data from several sessions into a single lightcurve. This spreadsheet approach may be useful for your first few projects. It is a bit time-consuming, and it demands that you have some experience with spreadsheet formulas and graphs, but with it you can create a nice lightcurve. After you've used it a few times, and assuming that you get the asteroid lightcurve'' bug, you'll recognize the value of special-purpose data analysis software such as MPO Canopus or Peranso.
Now that you know the location and path of the asteroid, you are in a position to place your photometry aperture onto the comp stars and the asteroid, in frame after frame. If you're doing this manually, it can be something of a chore. A continuous series of 2-minute exposures for a 6-hour observing session, you'll have 180 images to reduce For my first asteroid lightcurve, I used a rudimentary CCD imaging program that allowed me to put the measuring aperture over one comp star to display the integrated ADUs. I typed this value into an Excel spreadsheet, then moved the measuring aperture to the asteroid, and entered its ADU into the spreadsheet. Then I loaded the next image, and repeated the process until all 180 images were reduced. This laborious routine had several meritorious consequences I learned a lot about the various flaws that you will find from time to time in your images, I avoided the cost of buying special-purpose software until after I had tried my hand at photometry,...
It should be noted that initial budget estimates almost never correspond with design considerations at lower levels. Gearly, the early budgets are starting points for negotiation and budget adjustment, to reconcile early system allocations with segment estimates of design and performance. As we reconcile requirements, we should document them in a requirements reference which changes only with full traceability and visibility for all stakeholders such as segment designers, system engineers, and program managers. (A number of tools may be useful these include the previously noted QFDs, plus software packages ranging from Excel to QSS DOORS and Ascent Logic's RDD 100.) Each of these critical performance parameters matches an established system and segment budget These budgets can and normally do change as developers proceed on the design and validate performance.
Click on the Measure Statistics Image menu item. The Image Status window will be displayed. The information that appears in the Info window is also stored in the A P4 N'm Data Log. The Data Log is a separate window of the AIP4Win program and keeps a running log of all the measurements you make using the measurement tools. It appears in the icon tray at the bottom of your screen when A P4Win starts up. It can be minimized by clicking the minus (-) button in the upper right corner, and it will retire to the taskbar where it can be recalled later. This window is editable, it can be cleared, and it can be saved to a file. The tools that write to this window do so in a format that makes the contents easily parsed into a spreadsheet program such as Excel or Lotus. This permits you to perform further analysis on data you extract using AIP4Win. For now you can just minimize the Data Log. If you should accidentally close it, no problem it will be restarted the next...
Not all of these modes work equally well, for several reasons. First, DSLRs excel at deep-sky work, not lunar and planetary imaging. Accordingly, we want a bright, wide-field image. That means we normally leave the focal length and f-ratio of the telescope unchanged (with direct coupling) or reduce them (with compression). The modes that magnify the image and make it dimmer -positive and negative projection and, usually, afocal coupling - are of less interest. Second, Barlow lenses make excellent negative projection lenses, but the magnification is not the same as with an eyepiece it is greater, and the best way to measure it is to experiment. The reason is the depth of the camera body, putting the sensor appreciably farther from the Barlow lens than an eyepiece would be.
The example shown in Figure 23.2 is the data taken from a useful Excel spreadsheet by Brian Workman available via Another useful site is Richard Dibon-Smith's orbital pages at http www.dibonsmith.com orbits.htm. For raw data on double stars the data from the Hipparcos mission has been made available on a CD called Celestia 2000 which is available from Sky Publishing in North America or from ESA for the rest of the world. This CD allows you to search on the Hipparcos catalogue for double star data and provide a rudimentary plot of this data. The plotting functionality is not as great as the mainstream programs but the data is some of the more accurate positional data for the brighter stars that Hipparcos measured.