The Des Focal Plane

Our survey goals require that we have high Quantum Efficiency (QE) at the near infrared wavelength of 1000 nm. Standard astronomical CCDs typically have a QE at this wavelength of 5-10 because the charge collection region is 10-20 m thick and the total device thickness is often less than 50 m. The absorption length in silicon is 205 m at a wavelength of 1000 nm, and thus thick sensors are required for a better QE at that wavelength. Photons at near infrared wavelengths will simply pass through...

Inductance of PCB Traces

The inductance of a PCB trace is given by the formula in Eq. 2 where, LT is the inductance in nH, L is the length of the track, w is the width and h is the thickness of copper all in millimeters. This shows a weak dependence on trace thickness (10 nH cm for a 200 m track, 7 nH cm for a 1 mm track). This series inductance will create overshoots and undershoots since it makes an oscillator with the CCD phase capacitances. These overshoots are proportional to the variation of current, and in the...

Plasma Cleaning

A New Method of Ultra-Cleaning Detector Cryostats Sebastian Deiries, Armin Silber, Olaf Iwert, Evi Hummel, Jean Louis Lizon Abstract First results are reported from the application of a plasma-based method to ultra-clean detector cryostats. The device used is a LFG40 controller from Diener electronic in conjunction with a Kendro VT6060M vacuum oven. This technology considerably extends and enhances the cleaning methods used by ESO as described at SDW2002 1 . While it cannot replace these...

Autocorrelation

Moore, et al. 2 have examined the detector edge spread and MTF they were the first to introduce interpixel coupling as one mechanism to degrade the image sharpness of CMOS hybrid detectors. They devised a stochastic method of measuring the interpixel coupling using 2-D autocorrelation and arrived at the same conclusion regarding the overestimation of the nodal capacitance by the shot noise method. We have applied their autocorrelation method to both HgCdTe and Si-PIN diode arrays hybridized to...

The Hardware

The PULPO 2 CPU board (see Fig. 2) is a Eurocard-size board. The core component is a credit card sized embedded PC module from Compulab. It hosts a complete PC with 486 processor, integrated 16 MB flash disk, 32 MB of RAM, Ethernet controller and all standard PC peripherals (serials, parallel port, IDE controller, etc). PULPO 2 is supplied with +24V from the FIERA 5 linear power supply. All internal voltages (+5V, +3.3V, 15V and +12V) are generated on the CPU board by means of DC DC converters....

Persistency

Hobby Pro Telescope

To perform persistency tests the detector is initially saturated. It is exposed to laboratory radiation for 1 minute with no filter placed and then is covered with a cool blank before proceeding to acquire data. The conclusion is that it is necessary to repeat the reset cycle to remove the effect produced by initial saturation. Also, a dark current increase is associated to the previous saturation of the detector (see Fig. 7). Figure 7. Persistency, dark current increase vs. saturation. Figure...

References

Astronomy Club

1 Su, Hongjun, Cui, X., 2002, LAMOSTProjects and its current status, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 4837, p. 4. 2 Zhu, Yongtian, Xu, W., 2000, Low Resolution Spectrograph for LAMOST, Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and detectors, lye, M., Moorwood, A. F. .M. (eds.), Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 4008, p. 141-147. 3 Wu, Jianfeng, 2005, private communication. 4 Zhao, Zhaowang, 2005, Astronomical Array control & Acquisition System at NAOC, these proceedings. Binxun Ye and AG Davis Philips demonstrate the...

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

My Instrument is Bigger than Yours D. Kirk Gilmore Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) Abstract The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a wide-field telescope facility that will add a new capability to astronomy. The LSST will provide unprecedented 3-dimensional maps of mass distribution in the Universe, in addition to traditional images of luminous stars and galaxies. These mass maps can be used to better...

The Owl Telescope Concept

Since 1997, ESO has been developing the concept of a ground-based 100-m class optical telescope. It has been named OWL for its keen night vision and for being OverWhelmingly Large (showing either the hubris of astronomers or their distorted sense of humor). The challenge and the science potential are formidable and highly stimulating a 100m diffraction-limited optical telescope would offer 40 times the collecting power of the whole VLT with the milliarcsecond imaging resolution of the VLTI. A...

Imaging Technique Of The Disr Camera On The Huygens Lander

Rainer Kramm1, Horst Uwe Keller1, Richard Bredthauer2 and Martin Tomasko3 1Max-Planck-Institut f r Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), 2Semiconductor Technology Associates, Inc., 3Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL), University of Arizona Abstract The Descent Imager Spectral Radiometer (DISR) camera aboard the Huygens Probe to Saturn's moon Titan used a single frame transfer loral CCD to acquire image and radiometric data from nine individual optical sub-systems. The CCD was especially designed...

Charge Transfer Efficiency

CTE degradation has the largest impact on the scientific application of CCDs in space. The trapping of charge during the readout causes errors in stellar photometry, stellar astrometry and the observed surface brightness of extended objects. There are many techniques to measure the CTE of a CCD. On HST only the flight software of ACS could enable Extended Pixel Edge Response (EPER) and First Pixel Response (FPR) tests during orbit. ACS CTE is monitored monthly at the Fe55 signal level and twice...

Optimised ccd antireflection coating

Graded Thickness AR Coating (for Fixed-Format Spectroscopy) Andrew Kelt1, Andrew Harris1, Paul Jorden1, Simon Tulloch2 1e2vtechnologies, 2Isaac Newton Group Abstract Backthinned CCDs normally use an Anti-Reflection (AR) coating in order to maximise quantum efficiency such a coating is often optimised for a single wavelength peak. e2v has designed a custom evaporation technique to allow a graded AR coating to be deposited with good uniformity across a large-area scientific CCD. Test results show...

Siliconus maximus

Richard Bredthauer1 and Michael Lesser2 1Semiconductor Technology Associates, Inc., 2Steward Observatory, University of Arizona Abstract Recent discoveries reveal new promise for a technology formerly assumed to be extinct, CCDs. Silicon processing technology has made tremendous strides over the past 30 years enabling higher quality and ever larger CCDs. We will discuss prior and ongoing experience with large area CCD focal-plane arrays, which include innovative design andfabrication techniques...

The Mods Design

It is said that in optical design anyone can add surfaces, the trick is to take them out while still getting the job done. Minimizing the number of surfaces reduces cost and increases throughput. We have adopted a very simple, traditional design for astronomical grating spectrographs a decentered paraboloid collimator and a Schmidt camera. A removable dichroic beam splitter located just behind the slit directs the incoming light to separate red ( X > 500 nm) and a blue ( X < 500 nm)...

Large Format Focal Plane Arrays

Rockwell Scientific Company (RSC) produces a wide variety of Sensor Chip Arrays (SCAs) for demanding astronomical imaging and spectroscopy applications. These devices achieve high quantum efficiency, low readout noise and extremely low dark current. Presently, RSC array formats range from 256x256 (PICNIC) to 2Kx2K (HAWAII-2RG). The HAWAII-2RG 1 is the fifth generation RSC astronomy Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) and contains many desirable features including reference pixels (row and column...

Introduction

OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) is an instrument designed to obtain images and low-resolution spectra of astronomical objects in the optical domain (from 365 to 1000 nm). It will be installed on Day One at the Nasmyth focus of the 10 m Spanish GTC Telescope. One of its key elements is two ICOS ET100 tunable filters (see Fig. 1), which will be used for several scientific programs. The tunable filters are basically two partially plated...

The Loral Maxplanck Ccd Detector

The DISR CCD was designed and produced in the early nineties at Loral 2 under contract from MPS, formerly the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie. The design was optimized for the DISR application in respect to the rigid limitations in mass, power and data rate allocations provided by the Huygens probe. The CCD is a buried channel front side illuminated frame transfer device with 256 active lines and 512 (+ 8 dark) columns. The detector is employed 2 phase MPP clocking and gated anti-blooming...

Chip Layout

Spad Array 5x5

Three years ago ST Microelectronics began manufacturing SPAD arrays with different architectures. Currently 5 5 arrays (with each SPAD having active area of 40 m and pitch between adjacent pixels of 240 m) are produced. Furthermore, technology improvements in terms of quality, QE and cross-talk reduction are under study and development. Figure 3 shows the mask of a 5x5 40 m SPAD array and the SEM image. Figure 3. (left)Mask of a 5x5 40 m SPAD array, and (right) a SEM image. Figure 3. (left)Mask...

Cooling

A mixed-gas Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryo-refrigerator (MJTR) built by The Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC) 3 , will be integrated into the camera head for cooling the CCD device. It can cool the chip to -120 C with a high coefficient of power (COP > 0.15). High reliability and easy operation was another consideration in adopting this cryo-refrigerator for long life and low maintenance. TIPC will also engage in the detailed dewar design and the mechanism to ensure precision...

Opa 350 Telescope

The OPA350 is a single-supply rail-to-rail CMOS operational amplifier. Its main parameters (low noise, very low bias current and relatively high speed) together with being single-supply (and, therefore, having a low power consumption) make it an ideal component to be used with infrared detectors. That is why during the development of EMIR, an infrared instrument for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC), it was considered as a possibility for the amplification of the detector analogue output in...

Software And Fpga Design

The FPGA design consists of a state-machine that fully encompasses the clocking sequences required to read out a full frame, a sub-frame or clear the CCD. The frame readout or clear is triggered by a single start strobe. Three on-chip RAM memories hold the clock patterns, the iteration numbers for the various patterns and the clock rate to use for a given pattern. A GUI was developed for the Windows platform to easily create the RAM memory map file to control the circuit, set the biases on the...

Cmos Fabrication Processes

The attraction of CMOS-based process technologies for imaging applications is that they can bring control electronics and a sophisticated range of signal processing tools in very close proximity to the focal plane. Still, CCD fabrication methods have been steadily optimized over the past 35 years to produce large-format devices with broad spectral response, low noise readout, and good yield. In this section we compare the process technologies used for CCD- and CMOS-based imagers and describe...

Overview Of Rockwell Scientific Imaging Technologies

MacDougal, Yibin Bai, Markus Loose, James W. Beletic Abstract Rockwell Scientific Company (RSC) is a leading provider of CMOS-based Sensor Chip Arrays (SCAs) to the astronomy community. The most advanced astronomy product is the 2K*2K HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that offers a large number of advanced features to the astronomer including embedded reference pixels, guide window, and subframe integration. The H2RG ROIC is most often hybridized with HgCdTe...

Electronic Shuttering

Mechanical shutters are a perennial problem for astronomers, all the more so in this era of ever larger focal-plane arrays (FPAs). Thus, an electronic solution to this problem would seem to be enormously attractive. Interline-transfer devices have an effective shuttering capability but only for front-illuminated formats where the charge can be shifted into the readout registers that have been covered with a thin-film light shield. An electronic shuttering feature for back-illuminated CCDs has...

The Cs100 Controller

The CS100 is a standard controller produced by ICOS for their tunable filters (see Fig. 2). This device is an accurate position servo-controller that applies correct voltage to each piezoelectric actuator to adjust gap width and parallelism between the mirrors. It can be controlled manually from its front panel, or remotely through a RS-232 serial port. Although the system is very reliable, it is a dated design and its specifications do not completely satisfy the OSIRIS requirements The CS100...

Ccd Head Electronics

The first buffer stage for the CCD outputs is a cascode stage with two low noise JFETS Q1 and Q2 (see Fig. 3). Q1 acts as a source follower with a gain slightly below 1. Because the resistors R1 and R2 are equal, the signal voltages across R1 and R2 are also equivalent, but with opposite phase. R3 and R4 provide the DC bias for Q2. The advantage of this circuit is a gain two times higher when compared with a single buffer stage. As a benefit the circuit delivers a differential output signal. L1...

Springer

Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN-13 978-1-4020-4330-7 (e-book) Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved 2006 Springer No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material...

Can You Make It Bigger

While we were learning our shutter lessons in Bonn, around the world the silicon-filled portions of focal planes were growing thanks to CCD mosaics. Among the common challenges of developers was the big shutter problem. As we realized these demands, we began working on large-scale versions of our shutter mechanics design. A shutter with a 200 mm square aperture was designed and built for the 8K*8K mosaic camera 90PRIME at the 90 inch telescope of Steward Observatory at Kitt Peak 4 . Two smaller...

Costs And Constraints

The cost of plasma cleaning equipment is low, especially if one can refurbish an existing laboratory vacuum oven and or if one can use an existing vacuum pump. The annual maintenance costs are negligible. Vacuum oven Diener Electronic LFG40 Plasma Controller Diener Electronic Converter Vacuum pump Alcatel ACP28 Electrical costs per cleaning process 0.20 EUR 200 EUR per annum 100 EUR per annum Stainless steel and aluminum can be plasma cleaned for up to an hour. However, more than satisfactory...

Generalities About The Wircam Thermomechanical Design

WIRCam (Wide-field InfraRed Camera, see Fig. 1) is the second instrument of the Wide Field Imaging Plan of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope, providing a 20.5 20.5 arc minute field of view in the infrared (0.9-2.4 m). This will complete the infrared aspect of the MegaCam instrument which has been operational on the CFHT since January 2003. This innovative instrument is based on four Hawaii 2RG detectors arrays developed by Rockwell in a close buttable package. WIRCam uses the special guiding...

Current Software And Hardware Status

In the three years of development by NOAO, MONSOON has reached a level of maturity and is now ready to be released for use with operational instrumentation. The requirements for detector support on these instruments (see Table 1) have been met by the layered architecture which has resulted in a hierarchy of functional modules at the software, firmware, and hardware levels. These modules and their current release status are illustrated in Figure 2. The coupling of MONSOON hardware to different...

Readouts Roic

The primary technical challenge for the MIRI 1024*1024 readouts is functionality and low noise at the detector operating temperature of 7.1 K. Two types of starting material were used in the readout wafers standard material which had been used previously for low-temperature CMOS ROICs, and alternate material, which was untried but was believed, for theoretical reasons, that it could be lower noise at 7 K. Noise measurements confirmed that the alternate material did produce readouts that were...

Performance Data Shwfs

Figure 4 shows a typical example of a SHWFS image with three CCDs reading out simultaneously. A frame rate of 400 Hz with a total of 64x192 pixels was achieved. This corresponds to an average pixel rate of 4.9 Mpixel sec and a burst pixel rate of 7.5 Mpixel sec. The noise level for all 12 channels is 6 e- RMS, with a conversion factor of 1.7 e- ADU. Figure 4. Sample image, Shack-Hartmann mode, 3 64 64 pixels.

Roger Smith Astronomy

1 Beletic, J., Figer, D., Finger, G., Love, P. and Smith, R., 2005, Detector Testing and Characterization, Workshop on Scientific Detectors for Astronomy, these proceedings. 2 Janesik, J.R., 2001, Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices, SPIE Press, p. 134. 3 Moore, A.C., Ninkov, Z. and Forrest, W.J., 2003, Interpixel Capacitance in Non destructive Read-out Focal Plane Arrays, Proc. SPIE 5167, 204-215. 4 Bezawada, M., 2005, private communication. 5 McMurty, C. W., Allen, T. S., Moore, A.C., Forrest,...

Ota Qe

The optical testbench focal plane uses Hamamatsu S1337 photodiodes to measure the absolute photon flux from monochromatic flatfields. These hermetic ceramic packages behave well under vacuum and at cold temperatures. We carefully calibrate them as a function of wavelength and temperature against the usual NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Figure 3 shows representative QE values for OTAs which are thinned to 45 micron (no substrate bias applied) and OTAs which are thinned to 75 micron (-20 V...

The Panstarrs Controller

The controller we are developing for Pan-STARRS must be very fast, high density, and low power. This is an ideal application for one or more ASICs, but in our judgment ASICs do not yet have the maturity to field a system in the next few years. We have therefore elected to build a new controller around the best discrete parts we can presently find. Our goal is to meet the performance requirements while trying maintain simplicity and low cost. Our basic controller, illustrated in Fig. 5, is a PC...

Test Of Plasma Cleaning Results Water drop method

A contaminated sample shows a round water drop on its surface due to surface tensions created in the water by the contaminants. After plasma cleaning there is little or no adhesion on the surface due to the lack of contaminates so no water drop develops and the water simply flows away. End vacuum test A cryostat after plasma cleaning reaches a much better end-vacuum after 1 hour of pumping. In our tests, a much lower pressure of 5.0E-5 mbar was obtained after plasma cleaning compared to 1.0E-3...

Architecture of CMOS Image Sensors

Mono Cmos Sensor Read Out Diagram

In addition to the basic concept of active pixels, a number of common features can be found in most CMOS-based imagers. As shown in Fig. 2, two different scanners surround the actual pixel array a vertical scanner to control the row selection, and a horizontal scanner to amplify and multiplex the analog pixel signals. While most CMOS imagers include comparable vertical scanners, they differ quite substantially in the architecture of the horizontal scanner. Low-speed astronomy detectors...

Osiris Data Acquisition System DAS

The DAS is based on a classical ARC-GenII controller, using a timing board with parallel cable linked to a digital PMC-type commercial frame grabber plugged into a VME-crate running VxWorks OS (see Figures 1 and 2). The cable supports very high data rates and is presently implemented at 6.25 Mpixels s (only 4 MHz is needed in a 4-channel configuration). A fiber optics link has been added. More details about this configuration can be found in Joven, et al. 2 . Table 4 summarizes the main...

Ngc Detector Array Controller Based On High Speed Serial Link Technology

Manfred Meyer, Dietrich Baade, Andrea Balestra, Claudio Cumani, Sebastian Deiries, Christoph Geimer, Reinhold Dorn, Siegfried Eschbaumer, Gert Finger, Leander Mehrgan, Alan Moorwood, Roland Reiss, Javier Reyes, Joerg Stegmaier Abstract Progress in FPGA technology has made it possible to build a very compact, versatile, low power detector array controller based on high speed serial link technology. All data and communication transfers run between back-end and front-end, and within the front-end...

Capacitance Comparison Method

Each pixel slowly discharges the external capacitor, Cext. If the 2K*2K pixels of the detector are exposed to a high photon flux and several frames are read out and reset, the charge to repeatedly reset the complete array will discharge Cext, generating a voltage drop across Cext large enough to be accurately measured. Since the voltage drop AVext on Cext and the signals of each pixel ViJ are known, the nodal capacitance C0 and thus the conversion gain C0 e can be calculated as shown in Eq....

Intrapixel Response Of A Hawaii1rg Multiplexer

Baril, and James S. Stilbum National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Abstract The Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) is an infrared guide camera for the James Webb Space Telescope. The current design specifies 5 jlm cutoff HA WAII-2RG detectors for the focal plane array. The FGS optics will produce a slightly under-sampled point spread function of the guide stars. Thus, we plan to investigate the response of a HAWAII-1RG at sub-pixel resolution to determine...

CCD and CMOS Tradeoffs

We have all heard about the imminent doom of CCD technology, but it continues to thrive, and in many cases it is still the best approach when image quality is the most important criterion. The CCD is a straightforward device. The imaging section consists of an array of capacitors with overlying gate electrodes biased to create regions of high electrical potential in the pixels where charge carriers can be collected. Once the photogenerated charge has been accumulated in the potential wells, the...

Well Depth And Well Capacity

The detector was illuminated with a stable black body uniformly over its surface. The contribution in the linear regime was obtained using a 2 and 5 linearity criteria. The full well was also computed and the total charge while considering the signal saturation zone. The results are summarized in the Table 4. Table 4. Well depth and full well capacity. Linearity 2 considering 1 st pixel in ramp Linearity 5 considering 1st pixel in ramp Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4

Info

Grating Mechanism Nasa

The high-level instrument capabilities are summarized in Fig. 8. In the following paragraphs, we describe the instruments and their detectors. For more detailed technical information and test results, interested readers should see, for example, Figer et al. 2 for NIRCam, NIRSpec, and FGS TI. For MIRI's Si As SCAs, Hoffman, et al. 3 presents some more recent information. Figure 8. JWST's science instruments are housed in the Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM). These instruments are as...

Hot Pixels and Annealing

While the increase in mean dark rate with proton irradiation is important, the dark current non-uniformity (hot pixels) is generally a bigger concern for astronomical applications. Some pixels show very high dark current up to several times the mean dark rate. Depending on the particular collision sequence, protons of the same energy may produce varying degrees displacement damage. Moreover, if a defect is created in a high electric field region, the contaminated pixel can show very large dark...

SOAR Goodman Spectrograph PI Chris Clemens UNC

The SOAR Goodman Spectrograph has long-slit & multi-slit capabilities, with a 4K*4K mini-mosaic that covers an effective 7.2' in diameter FOV at a scale of 0.15 pix. The instrument is being commissioned, and observing is foreseen in 2005. The Goodman Spectrograph 2 has an articulated camera to optimize the use of virtual phase holographic gratings. The camera can move in an angle of 0o to 90o with respect to the collimator. This movement requires a 1.2 m cable to the SDSU-2 controller. This...

Active Pixel Sensor Developments For Future Esa European Space Agency Space Science Missions

ESA ESTEC, Science Payload and Advanced Concepts Office Abstract Optical imaging sensors in space science payloads were, until now, exclusively based on CCDs due to their superior optical performance and existing successful heritage. However recent technological improvements within the CMOS world as well as the commercial market have led to Active Pixel Sensor (APS) designs offering an advantageous alternative to CCDs. Their high suitability as a detector for virtually every wavelength range of...

CCD Sensitivity to Bias Voltages

For each CCD we verified that operation is optimal with nominal values of bias voltage. These nominal values come from data sheet and optimization made on engineering model CCDs. When bias voltages vary some characteristics of the CCDs are modified. In particular, CCD gain is sensitive to Vod (output drain), Vog (output gate) and Vrd (reset drain). For each voltage we measured the slope of the evolution of the video signal amplitude versus each voltage at the nominal value. These slopes...

Dark Count Rate

The measured dark count rate for each array element, obtained by using a bias voltage of 20 above the breakdown and a 6 s hold-off time, is mapped in Fig. 4. At room temperature only two elements are outside the 3-sigma limits of the mean value of about 3000 counts s, and thus measures show that the dark rate is quite uniform over the array. Figure 4. Dark count rate map of a 5x5 SPAD array, obtained at room temperature, by setting the bias voltage to 20 above the breakdown and the hold-off...

The Sidecar Asic

Most contemporary astronomy SCA designs, including visible CCDs and infrared SCAs, are analog devices that require external electronics for operating the SCA. Support electronics tend to be bulky and power hungry, with a complex interface to the SCA. To dramatically improve SCA integration by reducing size, weight, and power, and to greatly improve overall system performance, RSC has developed an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) called SIDECAR (System for Image Digitization,...

Kx2K Nir Hgcdte Detector Arrays For Vista And Other Applications

Hoffman, Ken J. Ando, Elizabeth Corrales, William D. Ritchie, Neil J. Therrien, Joe P. Rosbeck, Roger S. Holcombe Abstract The demand for large-format NIR arrays has grown for both ground-based and space-based applications. These arrays are requiredfor maintaining high resolution over very large fields of view for survey work. We describe results of the development of a 2048*2048 HgCdTe CdZnTe array with 20 micron pixels that responds with high Quantum Efficiency (QE)...

Ota Testing

We have tested these development Lot 1 devices quite extensively. We have performed all the usual CCD tests on the OTAs, and with the exception of noise and glow (discussed below) they function well. We have built a powerful test facility to support the production of these devices (see Fig. 1). We have two cryostats, each of which carries four OTAs in loose-packed arrangements in mounts which allow easy and safe handling. The test facility uses an LCD screen imaged via an enlarger lens to put...

Foreword

We present the proceedings from the workshop entitled Scientific Detectors for Astronomy 2005, a weeklong meeting held in Taormina, Sicily during 19-25 June 2005. This was the sixth workshop of this series, and the fourth with hardcover proceedings. By all measures, this workshop surpassed the previous meetings. The primary purpose of any technical meeting is the exchange of scientific and engineering information. The meeting was attended by 127 astronomers, scientists and engineers from 21...

Acknowledgement

We thank all who provided material directly or in publications, with apologies to those not mentioned or cited. We also wish to especially thank Karen Challberg of MIT Lincoln Laboratory for her excellent editorial assistance in assembling this paper. Figure 30. Example of concept for large device (5K*5K unit from 5K*1.25K components). Courtesy of e2v technologies. Figure 30. Example of concept for large device (5K*5K unit from 5K*1.25K components). Courtesy of e2v technologies.

Spatial Resolution

The distribution of spatial resolutions instruments tend to use is shown in Figure 4. Working from left to right in this plot, the instruments using very fine plate scales are generally fed by AO systems, which of course typically yield near diffraction-limited point spread functions (PSFs) that are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than seeing limited PSFs. Interestingly, if the same poll were cast a decade ago, the plot in Figure 4 would not have included many instruments with plate scales...

ROICs

CMOS technology allows complex input amplifier circuits to be designed to temporally integrate the detector signal. Figure 9 depicts schematic examples of the three most widely used, and simplest, input circuits the source follower per detector SFD , the capacitive transimpedance amplifier CTIA , and the direct injection DI . Figure 9. Circuit schematics for the three most commonly used input circuits for CMOS ROICs a the SFD, b the CTIA, and c the DI. Figure 9. Circuit schematics for the three...

Architecture

The CCD controller consists of four boards an interface and timing board, a clock driver board, a video processor and bias board, and a board to mount the CCD see Fig. 1 . Typically, these boards would be stacked on top of each other using the PC104 ISA bus connector, which is only used here to bus power between the boards. Figure 1. Architecture of the HIAC controller. Each large block represents an individual board module in the PC104 stack. Figure 1. Architecture of the HIAC controller. Each...

Further Background

Tulloch, S.M., 2004, Application of L3 Technology to Wavefront Sensing, SPIE 5490, 34. Tulloch, S.M., 2004, Photon Counting and Fast Photometry with L3 CCDs, SPIE 5492, 173. Maurizio Seracini, who gave a fascinating talk about using detectors to investigate classical paintings, and his wife Marie-Louise Lodge enjoy an evening in Forza d'Agro. Paul Jorden proudly shows Bruce Atwood and Vyshi Suntharalingam another typo he found in a poster paper, while Matthias Tecza back left tries to pretend...

Panstarrs And Gigapixel Cameras

Onaka1, Barry Burke2, Gerard A. Luppino1 1Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract The Pan-STARRS project will undertake repeated surveys of the sky, finding Killer Asteroids and everything which moves or blinks, as well as building an unprecedentedly deep and accurate image of the sky. The key technology for this is the next generation of large format cameras, which will offer an order of...

Interpixel Capacitance

The nodal capacitance C0 derived by the shot noise method appears to be too large. Since Eq. 1 shows that C0 is inversely proportional to the variance, the measured variance of the detector signal v should be larger to obtain a smaller but more plausible nodal capacitance. The discrepancy cannot be explained by excess noise of the data acquisition chain as more noise would only make the variance larger not smaller. On the contrary, a mechanism has to be introduced which does not store signal...

Sias Ibc Detectors

The most difficult requirement for the MIRI detectors is high Quantum Efficiency QE over the full spectral range and low dark currents. The relative response per photon as a function of wavelength is shown in Fig. 1 for three Si As IBC detector material types. 0 K MIRI Assy 7581011.1 Wafer 9601 A05 9 22 2004 amp Assy 7581009.1 Wafer 9581 A05 Diodes D28 at -1.0 V Bias 0 K MIRI Assy 7581011.1 Wafer 9601 A05 9 22 2004 amp Assy 7581009.1 Wafer 9581 A05 Diodes D28 at -1.0 V Bias -9601 - 1.0 volt...

Aquarius A 1024x1024 Sias Ibc Array For Groundbased Astronomy

Based on the success of MIRI, a large-format Si As IBC array is proposed for higher background applications, such as ground-based astronomy. This array has the same high QE and broad 5 - 28 m spectral response as MIRI, but with much larger ROIC well capacities and higher frame rates. The pixel size is tentatively set for 30 m, with the understanding that larger is better for MIR instruments. The gain is selectable for high gain 1 Me- well capacity and low gain 15 Me- . The number of outputs is...

Map of Sicily

Hotel Naxos Beach Taormina Forza d'Agro Caltagirone Piazza Armerina Murgo Winery Siracusa Mt. Etna Agrigento INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania Saturday tour - Valle dei Templi Greek ruins A special aspect of this workshop is that we recognize leading members of our community by naming an asteroid after them. These individuals have made substantial contributions over the course of their career and continue to be active leaders in our field. These asteroids were discovered by Alain Maury...

Inside the Dewar wiring electronics cooling mounts heaters

For CCD connections all systems except DECam use discrete Teflon insulated wires typically 0.003 to 0.010 Cu and Constantan wires . DECam will require flex cables. Thus far none of our CCD systems have ever used electronics inside the dewar, however, DECam may require preamplifiers inside the dewar. Mosaic-2 and SOI use classical LN2 cooling for their CCDs whereas the Goodman Spectrograph uses a Cryotiger and DECam will use a cryocooler. All systems except SOI, which uses Al, use Invar for...