Alan Hoffman1, Markus Loose2, and Vyshnavi Suntharalingam3
1Raytheon Vision Systems, 2Rockwell Scientific Company, 3MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Abstract: An entry level overview of state-of-the-art CMOS detector technology is presented. Operating principles and system architecture are explained in comparison to the well-established CCD technology, followed by a discussion of important benefits of modern CMOS-based detector arrays. A number of unique CMOS features including different shutter modes and scanning concepts are described. In addition, sub-field stitching is presented as a technique for producing very large imagers. After a brief introduction to the concept of monolithic CMOS sensors, hybrid detectors technology is introduced. A comparison of noise reduction methods for CMOS hybrids is presented. The final sections review CMOS fabrication processes for monolithic and vertically integrated image sensors.
Key words: CMOS, image sensor, APS, active pixel sensor, focal plane array, hybrid, HgCdTe, InSb, CCD, three-dimensionally stacked circuits, vertical integration.
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