Football Ebook

Football Apprentice

Football Apprentice

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Having A Great Game of Football. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How To Play Football Like A Pro And Win The Game.

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Youth Football Resources

These Youth Football Playbooks give you the ability to lead your youth football team to win after win through a series of three eBooks: T Formation, Pistol Offense, and Shotgun Jet/Fly Offense books. Each eBook contains over 70 fully diagrammed, full color plays and a full series based offense. This is not simple a collection of plays; it is a full guide of strategies. Each guide not only contains how to run the play; it gives additional runs and plays that compliment the main strategy. There are simply blocking strategies that you can easily teach your players. As a bonus, the T Formation eBook contains 8 Wildcat Formation Plays you can teach your team. This set of eBooks will help you coach your youth football team on a level they understand.

Youth Football Resources Summary


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Author: Dana Larson
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Ellipticals Stellar Footballs

An elliptical galaxy is one that has no discernible disk or bulge, and looks like an oval or circle of stars in the sky. The true shapes of ellipticals vary from elongated ( footballs ) to spherical ( baseballs ) to flattened ( hamburger buns ). Elliptical galaxies consist of old stars, and appear to have little or no gas left. An elliptical galaxy is one that has no discernible disk or bulge, and looks like an oval or circle of stars in the sky. The true shapes of ellipticals vary from elongated ( footballs ) to spherical ( baseballs ) to flattened ( hamburger buns ). Elliptical galaxies consist of old stars, and appear to have little or no gas left. There are no spiral arms, nor any discernable bulge or disk structure. Typically, these galaxies appear as nothing more than round or football-shaped collections of stars, with the most intense light concentrated toward the center and becoming fainter and more wispy toward the edges. Of course, the orientation of an elliptical galaxy...

Football Shaped Dark Halos and Spiral Structure

A key point here lies in the actual shape of the halo of dark matter in which a galaxy is embedded. If the dark halo is somewhat football-shaped, and the football is rotating, then the angular pull or torque on the gas from the halo of dark matter may be large enough to induce a spiral structure in the gas Football-shaped halos of dark matter clearly stuff for the next decades of astronomy, and beyond

Meeting The Challenge

Prior to the 1930s flying in aircraft was costly and potentially dangerous. There were fewer passengers and less cargo than required for profitability without government subsidy. The Douglas Aircraft Company design team took the train to New York City to meet with TWA officials rather than fly the airliners of the day, as there just had been a series of accidents including the one that Knute Rockne, the Notre Dame football coach, had perished on. Gene Raymond, the Chief Engineer for Douglas used the newly dedicated GALCIT wind tunnel at California Institute of Technology (CalTech) to experimentally verify the aerodynamics of the new aircraft. Raymond used the latest aluminum stressed skin structure developed by Jack Northrop for the Lockheed's aircraft fuselages. The engines were the new Wright Cyclones radial air-cooled engines that developed 900 horsepower. So Gene Raymond integrated the three principal elements for a successful aircraft from the newly demonstrated industrial...

An inauspicious start

When asked how his interest in astronomy came about, the answer came quickly. ''I was always fascinated with the questions 'What's around the next bend What's out there beyond Earth Are there people somewhere in the stars ' Maybe I found my forced studies boring, and retreated to that in which I could find some stimulation.''6 Having completed primary school in 1949, Gibson graduated to Kenmore High School on Highland Parkway, but he was still indecisive about what direction he wanted to take in life. However, the thought of flying with the Air Force had held a youthful appeal for him, although he admits he had not truly knuckled down to his studies at this stage of his life. ''When I got to high school I improved my performance a little bit, and finally learned through several sad experiences that I had to study if I was going to get anywhere. I was still oriented toward science and math, but this did not translate itself into a firm commitment to excel in my studies. I liked...

And a Serious Health Warning

During certain months of the year (if at all), you will also see how the Moon badly interferes with your attempts to view faint objects, and you will discover how certain wet months will also interfere with viewing, and imaging. Is there any light pollution in your proposed location By studying your proposed site carefully you may find that viewing is exceptionally good on most clear evenings, but becomes impossible on the Saturday nights when the local football team is playing, and the huge banks of halogen lights are turned on. Lastly, you will learn your way around the night sky, which is important on two counts. Firstly, if your first real telescope is of the goto variety, as it is very likely to be, then you will know where to look for the scope's alignment stars. Secondly, you will know what the faint fuzzy areas are that suddenly come into view as your eyes become dark adapted, and or the seeing conditions become exceptionally good. Even though your goto scope will take you...

Million years Formation of the Ring Systems

The most famous ring system is Saturn's. Consisting of countless boulder-sized, and smaller, icy chunks in individual orbits about the planet, the rings are exceedingly thin - with relative dimensions like those of a sheet of paper the size of a football pitch. But Saturn is not alone, because each of the other giant planets has similar accoutrements, albeit with different characteristics. Indeed, research has shown that no two systems are alike they differ from each other in terms of diameter, brightness, and in the sizes and compositions of the particles that constitute them. This is a clue to their formation. But the biggest hint is that most of the rings surround their planetary hosts inside their respective 'Roche limits'. This is the distance from a given planet at which gravitational forces tear apart any body held together mostly by gravity. These clues could mean that the rings are the unassembled ruins of moons that strayed within this danger zone and got ripped to shreds,...

The screening process

Academics associated with the university. His great-grandfather, the original Joseph Allen, did not attend college, but he grew up in Greencastle, Indiana where DePauw, founded as a teacher's college in the mid-1800s, is located. On a corner of the town square, he and his brother established and ran the Allen Brothers dry goods store, later sold to J.C. Penneys. Joe's grandfather, Joseph Jr., graduated from DePauw in 1897, followed just two years later by his great-uncle, the noted humanitarian Dr. Percy Hypes Swahlen, who was also a football letterman at the university. A rich academic heritage and a loving family environment linger as integral elements of Joe Allen's upbringing and development.4

Acceleration Due To Gravity

For a terrestrial experiment such as dropping a football from the top of the Empire State Building (don't try this one yourself), the approximation that ag does not depend on H is a very good approximation. For the Earth, ag -9.8m s2. On other planets and moons, the values of the acceleration due to gravity may be very different, resulting in different weights for the same object on these various worlds. By contrast, the value of ag on the Earth's

College and graduate school

Our next adventure was to Palestine, Texas, a small town south of Dallas where scientific balloons are launched. Our new apparatus hung by a thousand-foot cord from a huge polyethylene bag, as big as a football field. It would do a better job than we could manage from the mountain, because it would go above 99.5 of the air. This new project took until 1973 to get ready. We got impatient. More tests would take a long time, and they wouldn't be very realistic. Maybe the apparatus would work. We (my fellow graduate student David Woody and I) drove it to Texas on a yellow University truck, across the Arizona and New Mexican deserts to the lush greenery of watermelon fields of East Texas. We launched it, or I should say a lot of people launched it. The crew to handle these huge things is very professional and they have the most amazing equipment. Tiny Tim, a converted Earth mover, dangles the payload from his huge jaws 20 feet in the air, while the balloon bag rises overhead, and then...

Satellite On A String

The satellite that was the primary focus of these three shifts was a 1.6-m-diameter, Italian-built sphere, weighing 517 kg, with an outer skin of aluminium alloy and coated with an electrically conducting layer of white paint. It was, however, far more than just an oversized metallic football. Piercing its shell were windows for Sun, Earth and charged-particle sensors, a connector for the umbilical tether and doors that provided access to its onboard batteries. Extending from one side of the TSS was a long, fixed instrument boom, while a shorter antenna sprouted from its other side.

Towards the North Massif

The Station 7 stop was 475 m away from Station 6 near the base of the North Massif. It would be a short stop of ten to fifteen minutes. Cernan and Schmitt scouted for other boulders as they drove towards their next stop. Cernan stopped near a boulder more than two meters high and they got off to begin their sampling. They broke fragments off with their hammer and took further soil samples. Houston also wanted them to pick up a FSR, an acronym for a Football-Sized Rock. This EVA proved that the two astronauts were quite comfortable in handling their tools, taking photographs, communicating their observations to Houston, and moving about on the lunar surface. They stowed their samples and tools on the rover, climbed aboard, buckled up, and made for Station 8 near the Sculptured Hills, staying close to their EVA timeline.

Physical Overview

Image opposite Seen up close, Saturn's rings are resolved into an expansive system of bright, icy particles, each on an independent orbit about the planet. The particles vary in size, typically from peas up to footballs. But the largest of all might be several kilometres across. The rings are extremely thin, with the relative dimensions of a piece of paper the size of a football pitch.

Near Future Solar Sail Development possibilities

Solar-system exit velocities using present-day sail designs could approximate 10 AU per year, about three times the velocity of the Voyagers. A 30-kilogram science payload on board a 250-kilogram sailcraft with a football-stadium sized sail could reach the limits of the heliosphere and explore near galactic space at 200 AU from the Sun, after a flight of only 20 years. But current technology sails require more than 10,000 years to cross the interstellar gulf between the Sun and Alpha

What Generates Spiral Structure in Galaxies

There may be a marriage between spiral structure and halos of dark matter the two could be inextricably linked. For example, if the halo is not quite spherical but perhaps elongated rather like a rugby ball, its stirring of the disk of gas could generate spiral waves in the gas. Computer simulations of the growth of galaxies shows that such slightly football-shaped dark halos might be realistic and typical.

The First Observatories

You would think that finding a site for an observatory in a school with fifty acres of fields would be easy. Not so. Many of these acres were taken up by football and cricket pitches and putting the observatory on any of these would obviously contravene condition (1). We wanted a site remote from any lights but not too far from the buildings vandalism was an obvious worry. Eventually we settled on a place about a hundred yards from my rooms, in the corner of an old cabbage patch round the back of a boarding house.

Replacement and Resiting

The new site chosen was at the edge of one of the football fields, next to the groundsman's house. With the experience of the problems of the previous design, it was decided to build the new observatories with roll-off roofs. As the roofs no longer needed to be lifted off, the observatories could be built considerably larger and so the telescopes would be able to reach all parts of the sky.

There Is No Absolute Time

The speed of EM-field propagation, the fastest speed known, is approximately 300 million meters per second (3.00 x 108 m s), or 186,000 miles per second (1.86 x 105 mi s). A beam of light therefore travels about 300 m (984 ft) in 0.000001 s (one microsecond or 1 s). If you move a little more than the length of a football field away from a superaccurate bil-lionth-of-a-second atomic clock, the clock will appear to be in error by a microsecond, or 1,000 billionths of a second. If you go to the other side of the world, where the radio signal from that clock must travel 20,000 km (12,500 mi) to reach you, the time reading will be off by 0.067 s, or 67 thousandths of a second. If you go to the Moon, which is about 400,000 km (250,000 mi) distant, the clock will be off by approximately 1.33 s.

A reluctant student of law

Hubble lived on campus, so as to participate fully in the social life of the university. But membership in one of the university's sports-oriented fraternities did not remove Hubble from his father's stern influence. Hubble's fervent hope was to become an astronomer, but to satisfy his father, he had to prepare for admission to law school, and to take the science classes relevant to astronomy as time permitted. In his free time, he wanted to play football, but John forbade that too, fearing his son would suffer debilitating injuries. The injunctions against football and astronomy rankled Hubble, who once told one of his sisters that their father had ''blighted his life,'' remained bitter about the sacrifices he had made to please his father decades later.5

The Mars Exploration Rovers Begin Their Mission

The JPL team took its time getting Spirit ready for its mission. Each of the rover's scientific instruments and systems was carefully checked over the next several sols until, on 15 January, the commands were sent for Spirit to egress the lander. Twenty minutes later, JPL received the data that the rover had completed this successfully and was on the surface of Mars. Another mission milestone had been reached. The following sol, the robotic arm, formally known as the Instrument Deployment Device, was activated and extended and the first images with the microscopic imager were taken. The other instruments on the arm were checked in preparation for a close-up examination of a nearby rock. On 19 January, the rover approached a football-sized rock, named Adirondack. This was the first target of examination to employ the rock abrasion tool and the other instruments. As the rover was about to use the rock abrasion tool on the rock, the station in Canberra, Australia reported to JPL that it...

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At the 1996 Texas Star Party I got to spend some time with Tom Clark's 36 inch f 5 Yard Scope. With a 27 mm Panoptic eyepiece this planetary is bright, pretty large and somewhat elongated. The disk shows some mottling at low power, for a scope with 180 inches (4572 mm) of focal length Using a 14 mm eyepiece shows this planetary as grey-green in color, bright and large. The central star is in a void or dark area that is football -shaped. This elongated dark region around the central star is shown in the image.

Pregnant with alarm Apollo

Armstrong, sitting in the commander's seat is a man who is not only a machine himself in the links of these networks a man somewhat more than a pilot, somewhat more indeed than a superpilot, is in fact a veritable high priest of the forces of society and scientific history concentrated in that mini-cathedral, a general of the forces of technology of the vast multibillion dollar technological bands which belted the very economy of the nation . . . the methods of the hospital mixed with the methods of the football team. Norman Mailer, Of a Fire on the Moon

Definition of an event

An event in space-time is designated by four coordinates, x, y, z and t. Event 1, for example, might be the whistle to start a football match in Dublin, Ireland. Event 2 might be the striking of a match by an astronaut on his way to a distant galaxy. The two events may be specified by coordinates in the earth reference frame S, or in the frame of the spaceship S', or indeed in any other frame of reference S'' (for example, that of another spaceship) moving relative to both the S and S' frames.

Gordon Richard Francis Jr 1929

An American astronaut who walked in space during the Gemini 11 mission and orbited the Moon on Apollo 12. Gordon received a B.S. from the University of Washington in 1951 before entering the U.S. Navy and serving as a flight test pilot. In 1960, he joined Fighter Squadron 121 at the Miramar, California, Naval Air Station as a flight instructor and won the Bendix Trophy Race (an annual air race across America, sponsored by the Bendix Aviation Corporation, held from 1931 to 1962) from Los Angeles to New York in May 1961, setting a new speed record of 1,399 km hr and a transcontinental record of 2 hours 47 minutes. He was selected as an astronaut in 1963 and made his first spaceflight as pilot alongside Charles Conrad on the three-day Gemini 11 mission in 1966. Gordon and Conrad served together again in 1969 aboard Apollo 12, with Gordon as Command Module pilot. In 1971, Gordon became chief of advanced programs for the Astronaut Office and worked on the design and testing of the Space...

A philosophical interlude

Let us go back to our 'practical' examples. The start of a football match in Dublin, and the striking of a match by an astronaut travelling somewhere a million miles away, are two events separated in space and time. Observing them from some other frame of reference, one might find that the interval between them has only space components, and the time component is zero. In this frame the events are 'simultaneous'. Other observers, in other reference frames, find that the interval has both space and time components. For them the events occur at different times. None can be said to be 'absolutely' right or wrong.

A 3 The Brightness of Radio Sources

The luminosity of a radio source refers to the actual amount of energy it emits whereas the brightness of the source is a measure of the power per unit area radiated by the source. For example, a flashlight may appear bright when placed close to one's face, but across a football field it will appear quite faint. Distant stars also appear very faint in the night sky. but if we should move close to a star we would find that it is enormously more luminous than the flashlight. These terms can be used to refer to optical or radio emission from astronomical objects.

Image not available

The next question might be, how could one check up on this tachocline model of the dynamo Dikpati and Gilman provided one possible test. They predicted that the tachocline should have a prolate shape like a football, with a longer diameter at the poles and a smaller diameter at the equator.

Exotic Propulsion Methods

Wormhall Svg

The wormhole usable for star travel would be an intra-universe worm-hole. Here the two openings exist in the same spacetime. In general wormholes may indeed connect different cosmologies, sometimes called an inter-wormhole. There are similar wormholes that connect D-branes in su-perstring theory as well. In this case the metric is Euclideanized, where t2 -t2, and the metric is transformed to a standard Euclidean distance in four dimensions. Such a wormhole is called a Euclidean wormhole instead of the Lorentzian wormhole. Figure 11.2 illustrates a wormhole, or Schwarzchild throat. The football space inside is a white hole, forbidden by thermodynamics, or a DeSitter cosmology. In the latter case a virtual wormhole in the vacuum might be the seed for a cosmology. The image on the right illustrates how the wormhole may connect up different regions of spacetime.

Spacelab Medical Development Test I

In this simulation, the flight crew consisted only of an MS and a PS, and though the paper timeline accounted for commander and pilot positions, these were not included in the simulation. On real missions, the commander and pilot in all Shuttle Spacelab missions would participate in payload operations. Musgrave observed that the ability of pilot- and scientist-astronauts to conduct space flight experiments has been established particularly in the Apollo and Skylab programs '' Timeline analyses in 1974 revealed that a commander and pilot would have about sixteen hours between them each flight day to devote to experiment operations, taking into account their participation in orbiter and Spacelab system requirements. Any division of labour would depend on the education and experiences of the crew member, their personality, motivation and training, and other factors. Musgrave used the analogy Football coaches should not assign the team responsibilities until they have met the players.''

Absolutely No Concern For Entry

A continent away, at the KSC viewing site, the crew's families, Israeli dignitaries and high-level NASA managers - including Administrator Sean O'Keefe and his new Associate Administrator for Space Flight, Bill Readdy, a former Shuttle Commander - had begun to gather on a beautiful Florida morning for the landing. STS-107 was the first of six missions planned for 2003 the others would be exclusively dedicated to assembling the International Space Station. In fact, assuming everything went as planned on those missions, the station's football-field-sized truss structure and electricity-generating solar arrays should be in place by the end of the year.

Elliptical and Lenticular Galaxies

Elliptical galaxies are very different from spirals in that they have very little in the way of internal structure. Even to the largest telescopes, they only appear to be uniform patches of light that form an elongated shape. These galaxies have very little in the way of interstellar matter such as dust and gas traveling between stars. This gives the suggestion that the elliptical galaxies are extremely old. Elliptical galaxies vary tremendously in size from the tiny companion galaxy M32 to the massive M87. These galaxies are characterized in the Shapely system with the letter E followed by a number 0 through 7 with the lower numbers being the closest to spherical in shape. In reality the elliptical galaxies for the most part are shaped like footballs, with different measurements on each of its three axes. The Messier catalogue lists a total of eight elliptical galaxies. one of the truly giant galaxies of the Virgo Cluster. It is about 160,000 light years along its major axis, or the...

Our Own Galaxy Galactic Structures and Types

Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes. The most visually compelling systems are the spirals, though not all spirals are created alike. Just like with everything else in the universe there is a system by which spiral galaxies are categorized. Edwin Hubble devised the scale. Elliptical galaxies are denoted with E then assigned a number 0 through 7 depending on the degree of elongations with 0 being assigned to galaxies that are closest to spherical and 7 to the most football shaped. Irregulars are given the letter I . With spirals, the initial designation is with an S . Galaxies are then sub-characterized by lower case letters a through d. A spiral galaxy that is graded Sa is one that has a large central nucleus as its most dominant feature. If the galaxy also sports conspicuous arms with a dominant core, it is called Sb. A spiral galaxy that has an identifiable core and dominant arms is graded Sc. If the galaxy has visible spiral arms and no visible core at all, then it is graded Sd....

Book Nobody Understands

In August 1684 a handsome young astronomer named Edmond Halley boarded the London coach for Cambridge and sat back to ponder the events that had sent him on an important mission. Earlier in the year, he had entered into a lively conversation with Robert Hooke and Sir Christopher Wren, noted architect of the new St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Halley suggested that the force of attraction between the planets and the sun decreases in inverse proportion to the square of the distance between them. If this were true, then each planet's orbit should take the form of Kepler's ellipse, a shape like a football, though somewhat more rounded.

At the University in Cracow

Regiomontanus Epicycle

Cracow was several times larger than Torun, with a market square the size of four football fields. On all sides Nicolaus could feel the power and wealth of Poland. This was the Poland that his father and uncles had fought for a few years earlier. And now he was here to continue a glorious tradition. While Poland's strong Jagiellonian kings kept their enemies at bay, they also fostered studies in the arts and sciences to rival the older cultures of France and Italy. In particular, the university in Cracow had scarcely any rival in all northern Europe in the study of astronomy, for it had not just one, but two professors of astronomy.

Plutos impact on Generations Past Present Future

EDINBORO, Pennsylvania -- Thousands gathered Tuesday to mourn a popular teacher who was shot to death in front of his students at a school dance. John Gillette, a 48-year-old science teacher and former football hero involved in numerous volunteer, church and business projects, was killed Friday when a 14-year-old student Andrew Wurst allegedly opened fire with a .25-caliber semiautomatic pistol. Students described him as a man who lived by a motto of Anything that is worth doing is worth giving your best. Several former students paid tribute to him at the service, one of them drawing small ripples of laughter when he told a humorous story about Gillette scolding him at football practice. However, the Rev. John Jacquel, a priest at Gillette's church, Our Lady of the Lake, had a more somber message for the mourners. Why didn't God do something to protect this man from dying He asked. Why did God let that happen It seems that faithfulness doesn't guarantee you safety or a trouble-free...

The International Space Station 160 to 120V

The International Space Station is truly the largest and most complex space structure ever built, with 16 international partners. The complete assembly shown in Figure 4.15 weighs one million pounds and the total interior space of its six laboratories equals two Boeing 747 aircraft. It is taller than a 30-story building and wider than the length of a football field. The attitude is controlled within 1 stabilized at a rate less than 0.1 s. It is in 335 to 500-km low Earth, 51.6 inclined orbit with a 90-min orbit period and 35-min eclipse. The experiments planned for its on-board laboratories are targeted to enhance our understanding in

A fascination with anything aeronautical

William Thornton

In 1948, Thornton undertook further studies at the University of North Carolina (UNC), where he gained his Bachelor of Science degree in physics on 2 June 1952. He also became a Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) graduate with the USAF. College was, in his own words, ''a balance between survival, education, Air Force ROTC, and ill-considered participation in collegiate football without a scholarship.''

Light Trespass

Arguing against light onto your observing site is a different and more difficult one. Test cases will occur but at the time of writing the way forward is not obvious but a compromise for agreed On & Off timings might work. Floodlights alight all night at a baseball or football stadium when they're only needed when games are in progress seem logical no go. Golf Driving Ranges lit all night are another pet hate for most astronomers.

Chasing Eclipses

In any distribution there are usually wide deviations from the average, like professional basketball players being taller than the norm, and football linebackers heavier. The path of the total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999 passed from the northwestern Atlantic across central Europe, the Middle East, and then India. On March 29, 2006, a similar event (actually with a wider track and duration of totality) will occur, the path beginning in northeastern Brazil, crossing the Atlantic and then Africa, heading northeast to pass over central Asia, and finishing just short of Mongolia. Those paths have to meet somewhere, and the lucky location is close to the Black Sea coast of central Turkey. No doubt hotel owners and tourist agencies there rubbed their hands in glee when they discovered this two total eclipses within seven years

Local Support

Long Crendon is indeed a long village, spreading well over a mile in length, 280 feet above sea level, and with 2,500 inhabitants. It is very much sought after, with many enchanting corners but it also has its blander, more recently built parts. There is a post office, which is something of a village hub, where you always get a friendly welcome, a butcher shop, a news agency, stores, and a garage. There is an award-winning English restaurant and three Oriental restaurants, a village Club, Tennis Club, Bowls Club, Cricket Club, Pigeon Racing Club, and Football Clubs for seniors and juniors.

The Flat Earth

As soon as you try and make a chart, paper or electronic, you run up against the problem of transforming a spherical surface into a flat sheet. It's fine if the area covered is no bigger than a football ground, but if you want a sizeable portion of land or sea, you just can't do it easily.

Astronauts Wanted

Despite the hard work, the newcomers bonded exceptionally well so well, in fact, that two astronaut marriages resulted from Group Eight. One was between Ride and Steve Hawley, another between Hoot Gibson and Rhea Seddon. Years later, Gibson, who flew Challenger in February 1984, remembered the group was so large that it had to be split into two halves, both of which frequently entered into friendly competition through 'red' and 'blue' football matches. They organised happy hours on Friday nights, Christmas parties and New Year celebrations turning, said Gibson, into an extended family as much as a spacefaring flight squadron.

Onedav Moon

Nights bringing cold feet and numb fingers. If such misery seems too great a sacrifice, perhaps you can draw new strength from the zeal of those thou, sands of hardy and dedicated souls who in mid. winter sit outdoors all afternoon to watch a football game. You will encounter the severe hardship of responding to the alarm clock at 3 or 4 a.m. leaving the comfort of a warm bed, and driving yourself out in the cold, damp solitude of predawn to observe the waning crescent. But the rewards will prove to be worth the hardships as you inspect the lunar landscape and go over the ground upon which the pioneers of the Space Age have walked, experimented and gathered samples.

Spincast honeycombs

During the molten stage the liquid glass will form a deep curve in the shape of a parabola due to the centrifugal force produced by the rotating furnace, and will keep this shape as it cools while spinning. The term for this technology is spin-casting . Roger and his team have cast mirror blanks from 3.5m to 8.4m in size (Figure 3.14). The mirror can be made very stiff and yet lightweight by using a honeycomb construction on the back surface. To do this a mold is made with a hexagonal block of ceramic fiber attached to the base of the furnace. As glass is melted into the mold it runs down the gaps between the blocks to form the ribs and backplate. After cooling, the mold is completely removed from the glass using a high-pressure spray of water to break up the ceramic fiber blocks. This casting method produces an internal honeycomb core with 11 of the solid density, with the ribs being 11 mm thick and the faces only 25 mm-28 mm thick. It takes about six weeks to...

Off To Work

Throughout STS-8, they received daily updates from Mission Control on terrestrial events. During our flight, said Bluford, they kept me abreast of how Penn State his alma mater was doing in football and how the Philadelphia Phillies were doing in baseball. Each morning, we were awakened by a school song. We were informed about the shooting down of a Korean airliner, Dick Truly told me he was leaving the astronaut office to become Commander of the Naval Space Command and my wife sent me a message saying we had termites in our house

What Happened Next

There are a lot of craters in the Solar System. One of them out there is human-made. Nobody knows quite how big it is - the violent process of making it and then making away from the scene allowed less than 15 minutes for close-up inspection, and in that time the dust thrown up obscured the view. It could be the size of a back yard, or of a football stadium. Whichever, it's now a scar on the face of comet Tempel 1.

Deep Impact

NASA Discovery Program mission to collide with a comet and study material thrown out by the impact from beneath the comet's surface. If launched as planned on January 6, 2004, Deep Impact will encounter comet Tempel 1 on July 4, 2005. The mission hardware consists of a flyby spacecraft and a smart impactor that will separate from the flyby probe 24 hours before collision. The 500kg cylindrical copper impactor has an active guidance system to steer it to its impact on the sunlit side of the comet's surface at a relative velocity of 10 km s. Prior to collision, the impactor will send back close-up images of the comet. The impact itself will create a fresh crater, larger than a football field and deeper than a seven-story building. Two visible imaging systems on the flyby craft will record the impact events and the subsurface cometary structure, while two near-infrared imaging spectrometers will determine the composition of the cometary material. This is the first attempt to peer beneath...

Elliptical galaxies

Instead, detailed studies reveal a bewildering complexity. Elliptical galaxies cover a huge range of luminosity and of light concentration. Some ellipticals rotate fast, others hardly at all. Some appear to be oblate (grapefruit shaped), while others have a triaxial shape with three unequal axes, like a squashed (American or rugby) football. These properties are interlinked luminous ellipticals are more likely to be triaxial, slowly rotating, and also strong X-ray sources, while the less luminous systems are oblate and relatively rapidly rotating, and have dense stellar cusps at their centers.

Legends and folklore

In Scotland, the Lights were called the 'Merry Dancers', supernatural beings dancing in the heavens. In Norse mythology, the aurora represented reflections from the shields of the Valkyries in Denmark and Sweden it was said that aurora came from an active volcano in the far north, put there by the gods to provide humanity with light and warmth. When the Lights flickered, the Greenlanders believed that the dead were trying to signal to their living kith and kin. The Inuit of Hudson's Bay pictured the sky as a solid dome, pierced by holes which allowed light from beyond to shine through also, the spirits of the dead could pass through the holes into the heavenly regions. The Faroe Islanders kept their children indoors during brilliant displays, because of the fear that the Lights would swoop down and singe people's hair off. To some Eskimos, an aurora represented a game of football played by spirits using a walrus head as a ball, but in Siberia the...

The Bohr Atom

The Danish physicist Niels Bohr applied the new quantum concepts to atoms. Bohr was born in a wealthy Copenhagen family. In his youth he was outstanding in football together with his brother he played at the top national level. Bohr studied in Copenhagen University receiving his Ph.D. in 1911. A turning point in his career was working in England after completing his thesis. First, Bohr went to Cambridge, but after meeting Rutherford he decided to go to Manchester. It was just at this time that Rutherford had confirmed the solar system model of an atom in his alpha-particle experiments.


Your lunar landing was one of surprise. Rodney Bidner, AP, London Europe is Moon-struck by your mission. Newspapers throughout the continent filled their pages with pictures of the Saturn V rocket lifting off to forge Earth's first link with its natural satellite. The headline-writers taxed their imaginations for words to hail the feat. 'The greatest adventure in the history of humanity has started', declared the French newspaper Le Figaro. It devoted 4 pages to reports from the Cape and has diagrams of the mission. The tabloid Paris Jour proclaimed, 'The whole world tells them, bravo'. The communist daily L'Humanite led with the launch picture, and devoted its entire back page to an enthusiastic report describing the countdown and launch, the astronauts' wives and families, and some background for the lunar activities. Hempstead, NY Joe Namath officially reported to the New York Jets training camp at Hofstra University, Wednesday, after a closed-door meeting with his team mates to...

Eagle Has Landed

As the moonscape came into clearer view, Armstrong saw they were approaching a crater almost as large as a football field. He took over manual control and steered toward a less formidable site. At Mission Control physicians noted his heart beat had increased from a normal 77 to 156. While Armstrong manipulated the control, Aldrin called out altitude readings 750 feet, coming down at 23 degrees . . . 700 feet, 21 down . . . 400 feet, down at nine. . . . Got the shadow out there . . . 75 feet, things looking good . . . lights on . . . picking up some dust . . . 30 feet, 2 1 2 down . . . faint shadow . . . four forward . . . drifting to the right a little . . . contact light . . . O.K. Engine stop. As the probes beneath three of Eagle's four footpads touched the surface, a light flashed on the instrument panel. The world heard Armstrong's quiet message Houston. Tranquility Base here. Eagle has landed. 42

Pulsating variables

Mira has a binary companion, which is itself variable and has been given a variable star designation (VZ Ceti). The range is from magnitude 9.5 to 12. The companion is probably a white dwarf in interaction with Mira, surrounded by an accretion disk of material which it has captured from the primary. The orbital period is 400 years, and the separation 70 a.u. The Hubble Space Telescope has also detected a small, hook-like appendage extending from Mira in the direction of the companion, and Mira is itself rather football-shaped instead of spherical. No doubt the presence of the companion is responsible for this.


As Apollo 11 started across the near side of the Moon, essentially in the equatorial plane and going east to west,2 Armstrong called, ''Apollo 11 is getting its first view of the landing approach. We're going over the Taruntius crater.'' This crater, some 30 nautical miles in diameter, was in the northwestern part of the Sea of Fertility. It had a flat floor and a complex of several low peaks at its centre. ''The pictures and maps brought back by Apollos 8 and 10 have given us a very good preview of what to look at here - it looks very much like the pictures, but like the difference between watching a real football game and watching it on television.'' The clarity of viewing by eye-ball far exceeded that of the pictures. ''There's no substitute for actually being here.''

Cart Ruts

The problem of how huge quantities of rocks were quarried, transported, dressed, and put in place in Malta and elsewhere has never been solved definitively (see Appendix 2). Yet at Ggantija and Tarxien, numerous balls of rock, the size of a football, can be seen. Some of these balls are scattered around, and others are in the foundations at the bases of blocks making up temples, and it is believed that they were used to facilitate the placing of the stones in position. Malta would appear to be replete with clues as to how the transport of blocks was effected. Yet, like everything dating back to the age of the temples on this extraordinary island, even these clues raise more puzzles than they solve.

Van Serg Crater

Their next destination on the rover was the small crater identified as Van Serg. Measuring 90 m in diameter, it was far smaller than Henry, Shakespeare and Cochise craters near the North Massif. Those craters measured hundreds of meters in diameter. Van Serg appeared to be sharply defined from orbital photographs and Cernan and Schmitt were to sample its dark mantle and sub-floor material. They drove around the southeast, subdued rim of Cochise Crater and soon spotted Van Serg. They had been traveling at 10 kph or more, and the rover's wheels were taking a pounding over the blocky terrain. Cernan could not take his eyes away from front and center for even a couple of seconds, concerned as he was about hitting a football-sized rock that would jar them and the rover. He was constantly moving the hand controller left and right to avoid the larger rocks and the nearly indistinguishable small craters in front of them. At one point, the rover scraped over

Mpd Thrusters

In this context it is probably useful to dispel the myth of solar power as a viable energy source for future interplanetary missions. To collect 1 MW by solar cells in LEO one would need 5,330 m2 of cells, the area of a football field, assuming an average 15 cell efficiency over the entire mission, or 3,320 m2 at an optimistic 25 . Furthermore, the solar constant decreases with the square of the distance from the Sun near Mars the solar constant is 2.2 times lower than near Earth. This means that Mars missions using solar power should be either very long, or use two or three football fields of solar cell arrays. For missions to the outer planets, such as Jupiter, the solar constant decreases so much that a practical 1-MW power source for an MPD thruster cannot be solar. A 100-MW thruster, e.g., for a manned mission, would need half a million square meters of cells. The sheer weight and cost of orbiting such array would be staggering Koppel et al., 2003 .


Charles Dunlap Benson grew up in Winter Park, Florida, not far from Cape Canaveral's missile ranges. He attended Davidson College, earning Phi Beta Kappa honors and All-Southern Conference selection in football. After service with the 82nd Airborne Division, Benson pursued graduate training at the University of Florida (Ph.D., 1970). His dissertation concerned roles and missions of the armed services after World War II. After completing Moonport, he was co-author of the official history of Skylab. In 1977 he was recalled to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major.

A real turning point

Meanwhile, as a distraction from his studies, England would often take to the football field for his school, and he also played trombone in the school band. Sometimes, there was a combination of the two. ''I played football, and at homecoming I would still play in the band at half time. Another time, the football team got the 'flu badly enough that we actually had to scrimmage the band - there weren't enough to make up the team ''

Satisfied Visage

I do not know whether the builders of Stonehenge were barbarians'' or if they howled.'' (When Italy won the 1982 Football World Cup, I painted my face blue and I howled. If that makes me a barbarian in the eyes of some, then so be it.) In any case, Hawkins irrefutably attracted attention to the fact that the celestial cycles held great interest for the builders of Stonehenge. The important point is that Hawkins's work, while controversial and bitterly criticized, sparked a rebirth of interest in the astronomical alignments of ancient constructions and in the concomitant astronomical knowledge the builders must necessarily have possessed, an interest that evolved into what we call today by the somewhat ungraceful at least in my view term of archaeoastronomy.

Mark Armstrong

Reverend Robert Evans Astronomer

The youngest of the United Kingdom's multiple discovery supernova patrollers, Mark Armstrong (born in 1958) made all of his discoveries from Rolvenden in Kent. Mark (Figure 10.4) works from home as a consultant to the U.K. magazine Astronomy Now. During his peak patrol years, from 1995 to 2004, he lived, slept, and breathed supernovae when skies were clear and often ended up with a backlog of thousands of images to check through. Mark named his first asteroid discovery, made while supernova patrolling, 15967 Clairearmstrong, after his wife, who supported him through the peak patrol years. His other asteroid discovery was numbered 44016. As Led Zeppelin are his all time favorite rock group and their guitarist Jimmy Page is his hero, he named that asteroid 44016 Jimmypage. The last time I asked Mark about that asteroid, he told me he still had not found a way of communicating this fact to Mr. Paige When I interviewed Mark for an article I was writing in 2004, he said he often had...