## V p

Which then leads to the following form of the derivative V Ai) pi mjfy + Ai j Vi W(Xi - Xj,h). By making use of these identities, the Euler equation can be written as - Emjypt + P + Uij) ViW(x - Xj,h). (89) By combining the above identities and averaging the result, the term -(P p)V v from the first law of thermodynamics can similarly be written as d- m -2 + -2 + UjjJ (vj - vi) Vi W(Xi - Xj,h). (90) Here we have added a term n j which is the so-called artificial viscosity. This term is usually...

## J ir r 2 e2

In principle, this sum would represent the exact (Newtonian) potential which generates the particles' acceleration. As mentioned before, the particles do not represent individual dark matter particles, but should be considered as Monte Carlo realisations of the mass distribution, and therefore only collective, statistical properties can be considered. In such simulations, close encounters between individual particles are irrelevant to the physical problem under consideration, and the...

## Modelling the ICM

The simplest model to predict the observable properties of the ICM is based on the assumption that gravity only determines the thermodynamical properties of the hot diffuse gas (Kaiser 1986). Since gravity does not have preferred scales, we expect clusters of different sizes to be the scaled version of each other. This is the reason why this model has been called self-similar. If, at redshift z, we define MAc to be the mass contained within the radius rAc, encompassing a mean density Ac times...

## Introduction

The observed large scale structure of the Universe is thought to be due to the gravitational growth of density fluctuations in the post-inflation era. In this model, the evolving cosmic web is governed by non-linear gravitational growth of the initially weak density fluctuations in the dark energy dominated cosmology. The web is traced by a tiny fraction of luminous baryonic matter. Cosmological shock waves are an essential and often the only way to power the luminous matter by converting a...

## Scaling Relations

So far, we have qualitatively discussed how simple models of pre-heating and radiative cooling can reproduce the observed violation of self-similarity in the X-ray properties of galaxy clusters. In this and in the following sections we will focus the discussion on a more detailed comparison between simulation results and observational data, and on the implications of this comparison on our current understanding of the feedback mechanisms which regulate star formation and the evolution of the...

## Simulation Techniques for Cosmological Simulations

Diaferio A.M. Bykov Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 134, Nos 1-4. DOI 10.1007 s11214-008-9316-5 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the...

## Info

Fig. 8 Comparison of RMs in simulations with observations of Abell clusters, as a function of the distance from the cluster centre. The smooth lines represent the median values of RM produced by simulated clusters with masses above 5 x 1014 Mq (upper line) and 3 x 1014 Mq (lower line). The broken line represents the median of combined data taken from the independent samples presented in Kim et al. (1991) and Clarke et al. (2001). We also include data (diamonds) for the three elongated sources...

## References

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## Ux

Fig. 5 A sketch illustrating the structure of a cosmic-ray modified shock. The dashed line is the shock velocity jump corresponding to the test particle case. The dotted line is a spatial distribution of accelerated particles at some momentum p p0. The solid line is the CR modified shock velocity profile with the precursor and subshock indicated Fig. 5 A sketch illustrating the structure of a cosmic-ray modified shock. The dashed line is the shock velocity jump corresponding to the test...

## B

Fig. 1 A sketch illustrating the coplanarity theorem for a plane ideal MHD-shock. The upstream and downstream bulk velocities Ui and U2, magnetic fields Bi and B2 and the shock normal N all lie in the same plane. The shock is at rest in the reference frame where also uti 0. The shock is of infinitesimal width in the sketch. Simulated structure of the transition region of a collisionless shock is shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 where its finite width is apparent Fig. 1 A sketch illustrating the...