Cowie, L.L.; Songaila, A.; Hu, E.M.; and Cohen, J.G. (1996) "New Insight on Galaxy Formation from Keck Spectroscopy of the Hawaii Deep Field'', Astronomical Journal, 237, 3137-3145. The first clear statement of galaxy downsizing.

Einstein, A. (1936) "Lens-Like Action of a Star by the Deviation of Light in the Gravitational Field'', Science, 84, 506-507. The initial announcement of the possibility of gravitational lensing in the context of stars beyond the Sun. Einstein concluded that the probability of observing star-star lensing is negligible, which fits with the eventual detection of the phenomenon by monitoring millions of stars at once.

Fomalont, E.B.; Kellermann, K.I.; Partridge, R.B.; Windhorst, R.A.; and Richards, E.A. (2002) "The Microjansky Sky at 8.4 GHz'', Astronomical Journal, 123, 2402-2416. Examines the galaxy content of extremely faint radio sources, showing that these sources are generally star-forming, often interacting, galaxies, rather than the active nuclei which are important at higher flux levels.

Hu, E.M.; Cowie, L.L.; McMahon, R.G.; Capak, P.; Iwamuro, F.; Kneib, J.-P.; Maihara, T.; and Motohara, K. (2002) "A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370'', Astrophysical Journal Letters, 567, L75-L79. The current galaxy redshift record-holder, found by a combination of Lyman a emission and gravitational lensing. The strong Lyman a emission indicates that reionization was well underway by this redshift; otherwise the intergalactic medium would have absorbed the line photons close to the galaxy.

Keel, W.C.; Wu, W.; Waddington, I.; Windhorst, R.A.; and Pascarelle, S.M. (2002) "Active Nuclei and Star-Forming Objects at z > 2: Metallicities, Winds, and Formation Histories'', Astronomical Journal, 123, 3041-3054. Near-infrared observations of the compact Lyman a emitters found by Pascarelle et al. (1996) indicate that some have very low oxygen abundance. They are either chemically young, caught very early in their star formation history, or periodically sweep enriched gas away in starburst winds. The active nuclei in the same region have near-solar abundances, confirming that AGN are systematically associated with deeper potential wells and perhaps the earlier onset of star formation.

Kundu, A. and Whitmore, B.C. (2OO1) "New Insights from HST Studies of Globular Cluster Systems. I. Colors, Distances, and Specific Frequencies of 28 Elliptical Galaxies'', Astronomical Journal, 121, 295O-2973; and Larsen, S.S.; Brodie, J.P.; Huchra, J.P.; Forbes, D.A.; and Grillmair, C.J. (2OO1) "Properties of Globular Cluster Systems in Nearby Early-Type Galaxies'', Astronomical Journal, 121, 2974-2998. These papers correlate properties of the globular cluster systems in galaxies of early Hubble type—the best candidates for merger remnants—to the overall galaxy properties, to show that many must have completed their formation quite early. This raises the issue of how early we would speak properly of a merger rather than the acquisition of a purely gaseous cloud without constitutent stars.

Munn, J.A.; Koo, D.C.; Kron, R.G.; Majewski, S.R.; Bershady, M.A.; and Smetanka, J.J. (1997) "The Kitt Peak Galaxy Redshift Survey with Multicolor Photometry: Basic Data'', Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 109, 45-77. Results of one of the earliest long-term deep surveys of galaxy redshifts, from Kitt Peak. The sample includes many galaxies at z > O.2 in complete subsamples, our first view of representative galaxies at these epohcs in such numbers.

Owen, F.N.; Ledlow, M.J.; and Keel, W.C. (1995) "Optical spectroscopy of radio galaxies in Abell clusters. I: Redshifts and emission-line properties'', Astronomical Journal, 109, 14-25

Pascarelle, S.M.; Windhorst, R.A.; Keel, W.C.; and Odewahn, S.C. (1996) "Sub-galactic clumps at a redshift of 2.39 and implications for galaxy formation'', Nature, 383, 45-5O. Detection of compact Lyman a emitting objects in a grouping at z — 2.4. These are very small and have high star-formation rates, consistent with an early stage in the hierarchical buildup of luminous galaxies.

Refsdal, S. (1964) "The gravitational lens effect'', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 128, 295-3O6. A detailed treatment of lensing, giving the mathematical formalism used by many investigators in interpreting observations of lensed quasars.

Spinrad, H.; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Dunlop, J.; Peacock, J.; Jiminez, R.; and Windhorst, R. (1997) "LBDS 53WO91: An Old, Red Galaxy at z — 1.552'', Astrophysical Journal, 484, 581-6O1. This radio galaxy at z — 1.55 shows a remarkably old stellar population, putting a lower limit on the time since star formation began. Similar instances are now known; systematic searches for the reddest galaxies at high redshift are one way to determine the timing of galaxy formation.

Sunyaev, R.A.; Tinsley, B.M.; and Meier, D. (1978) "Observable properties of primeval giant elliptical galaxies or ten million Orions at high redshift'', Comments on Astrophysics, 7, 183-195.

Teplitz, H.I.; Malkan, M.A.; Steidel, C.C.; McLean, S.; Becklin, E.E.; Figer, D.F.; Gilbert, A.M.; Graham, J.R.; Larkin, J.E.; Levenson, N.A. et al. (2OOO) "Measurement of [O ill] Emission in Lyman-Break Galaxies'', Astrophysical Journal, 542, 18-26. Uses data on [O iii] line emission, redshifted into the near-infrared bands, to examine the abundances of ionized gas in Lyman-break galaxies at redshifts up to z — 3.4. Their oxygen abundances are subsolar, but not extremely low as found for nearby blue compact galaxies such as I Zw 18.

Venemans, B.P.; Kurk, J.D.; Miley, G.K.; Rottgering, H.J.A.; van Breugel, W.J.M.; Carilli, C.L.; De Breuck, C.; Ford, H.; Heckman, T.; McCarthy, P. et al. (2OO2) "The most distant structure of galaxies known: A protocluster at z — 4.1", Astrophysical Journal Letters, 569, L11-L14. Discovery of a young cluster of Lyman a emitting galaxies around a powerful radio galaxy at very high redshift.

Zwicky, F. (1937) "Nebulae as Gravitational Lenses", Physical Review, 51, 290 and "On the Probability of Detecting Nebulae Which Act as Gravitational Lenses", Physical Review, 51, 679. These brief, single-page outlines represent early calculations indicating that gravitational lensing may be observable in the context of galaxies as source and lens, and the use of this effect in deriving galaxy masses free of dynamical assumptions.

Internet Project website for observations of the Hubble Deep Field. Hubble Deep Field-South observations. The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. The CASTLES project (CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey) maintains this website, with a general treatment of contemporary gravitational-lens theory and a current data compilation.

0 0

Post a comment