Baade, W. (1963) The Evolution of Stars and Galaxies (Harvard University Press). Baade's 1958 lectures on stellar populations and their implications, as edited by Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin. A more recent reprint edition is also available.

Osterbrock, D.E. (2002), Walter Baade: A life in astrophysics (Princeton University Press). A detailed biography of Baade, including his contributions to our understanding of stellar populations and galaxy distances, and his sometimes-working relationship with Zwicky.


Audouze, J. and Tinsley, B.M. (1976) "Chemical evolution of galaxies'', Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 14, 43-79. Describes the basic closed-box recycling approach to the distribution of stellar metallicity, and illustrates ways in which real galaxies must be more complicated.

Brodie, J.P. and Strader, J. (2006) "Extragalactic globular clusters and galaxy formation'', Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 44, 193. Recent results on globular-cluster systems and their implications for the early history of galaxies, including the possibility that low-metallicity clusters may predate the assembly of massive galaxies.

Carney, B.W.; Laird, J.B.; Latham, D.W.; and Aguilar, L.A. (1996), "A Survey of Proper Motion Stars. XIII. The Halo Population'', Astronomical Journal, 112, 668-692. The status of dynamical studies of metal-poor stars in our vicinity, and the star-forming history they imply. The data show that many halo stars, and much of the halo structure, do not date back to a single primordial collapse event.

Cowie, L.L.; Lilly, S.J.; Gardner, J.; and McLean, I.S. (1988) "A cosmologically significant population of galaxies dominated by very young star formation'', Astrophysical Journal Letters, 332, L29-L32. Sets out the connection between the combined ultraviolet light from galaxies and the mean metal abundance in today's Universe.

Eggen, O.J.; Lynden-Bell, D.; and Sandage, A. (1962) "Evidence from the motions of old stars that the Galaxy collapsed'', Astrophysical Journal, 136, 748-766. The classic paper connecting the chemistry and kinematics of stars to the history of the Milky Way. Virtually everything done on galaxy evolution for the following three decades either built on or reacted to this paper, commonly abbreviated as ELS.

Harris, W.E. (1991) "Globular cluster systems in galaxies beyond the Local Group'', Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 29, 543-579. Reviews the frequencies of globular clusters in various types of galaxies.

Harris, W.E. (1996) "A Catalog of Parameters for Globular Clusters in the Milky Way'', Astronomical Journal, 112, 1487-1488. Describes a master catalog of globular clusters in the Milky Way. The updated electronic data set may be found at http://www.physics. mcmaster.cajGlobular.html

Harris, W.E. and van den Bergh, S. (1981) "Globular clusters in galaxies beyond the local group. I—New cluster systems in selected northern ellipticals'', Astronomical Journal, 86, 1627-1642. Defines the specific frequency of globular clusters, which has proven important in tracing the evolution and merging history of galaxies.

Hurley-Keller, D.; Mateo, M.; and Nemec, J. (1998) "The star-formation history of the Carina dwarf galaxy'', Astronomical Journal, 115, 1840-1855.

Searle, L. and Zinn, R. (1978) "Compositions of halo clusters and the formation of the galactic halo'', Astrophysical Journal, 225, 357-379. Used the distribution of chemical abundances among globular clusters to argue that the Galaxy formed in a more complicated way than a single smooth collapse.

Shapley, Harlow (1939) "A determination of the distance to the Galactic Center'', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 25, 113-118.

Smecker-Hane, T.A.; Stetson, P.B.; Hesser, J.E.; and Lehnert, M.D. (1994) "The stellar populations of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy 1: A new color-magnitude diagram of the giant and horizontal branches'', Astronomical Journal, 108, 507-513.

van den Bergh, S. (1995) "Some Constraints on Galaxy Evolution Imposed by the Specific Frequency of Globular Clusters'', Astronomical Journal, 110, 2700-2704. A collection of ways that globular-cluster populations pose interesting challenges to schemes for galaxy history. The tabulated properties of globular-cluster systems in galaxies were taken largely from this paper.

Wheeler, J.C.; Sneden, C.; and Truran, J.W., Jr. (1989) "Abundance ratios as a function of metallicity'', Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 27, 279-349. Discusses the observational data on chemical history of the Galaxy, and compares it with models incorporating realistic distributions of stellar lifetimes and recycling timescales.

Internet The "Spaghetti Survey'' at Case Western Reserve University, for remnants of assimilated dwarf galaxies in the halo of the Milky Way.

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