Contents

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Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

List of figures xxv

List of tables xxxi

List of abbreviations and acronyms xxxiii

1.1 Constellation maps 1

1.2 Cosmological maps 3

1.3 What makes these images maps? 5

1.4 Circles in the sky 6

1.4.1 The Sun-Earth orientation 6

1.4.2 The armillary sphere 7

1.5 Directions in the sky 10

1.6 Projections of star maps 12

1.7 Manuscripts and prints 13

1.8 Bibliography 15

2 Non-European cosmology and constellation development 17

2.1.1 Cosmology 18

2.1.2 Time and the calendar 19

2.1.3 Chinese constellations 20

2.1.4 Chinese influences in Korea and Japan 23

2.1.5 Outside influences on China 24

2.2 Mesopotamia 25

2.2.1 Historical interlude 25

2.2.2 Cosmology 26

2.2.3 Time and the calendar 28

2.2.4 Mesopotamian constellations and the zodiac 28

2.3 Egypt 29

2.3.1 Cosmology 29

2.3.2 Time and the calendar 30

2.3.3 Orientation of temples 32

2.3.4 Egyptian constellations 32

2.3.5 Differences from China and Mesopotamia 34

2.4 India 35

2.4.1 Cosmology 35

2.4.2 Time and the calendar 38

2.4.3 Indian constellations 38

2.4.4 Outside influences 39

2.5 Astrology in ancient times 40

2.6 Bibliography 45

3 European cosmology 49

3.1 Classical Greek astronomy 49

3.1.1 Precursors 49

3.1.2 The cosmologies of early Greek philosophers 50

3.1.3 Pythagoras and his followers 52

3.1.4 Plato 53

3.1.5 Eudoxus 54

3.1.6 Aristotle 55

3.1.7 The "Pre-Copernicans" 56

3.1.8 Eratosthenes and the Alexandria Library 57

3.1.9 The eccentric model 57

3.1.10 Apollonius and the epicycle model 58

3.1.11 Hipparchus 61

3.1.12 Claudius Ptolemy 62

3.2 European astronomy during the early Middle Ages 65

3.2.1 Impact of the fall of Rome 65

3.2.2 Astronomy in the Latin West 67

3.2.3 Time and the calendar 68

3.3 Islamic astronomy 69

3.4 Byzantine astronomy 73

3.5 Classical Greek astronomy comes back to Europe 74

3.5.1 Entry from the West: Islam 74

3.5.2 Johannes de Sacrobosco 75

3.5.3 Entry from the East: Byzantium 78

3.6 Astrology in the Middle Ages 79

3.7 Printing and the Renaissance 82

3.7.1 Johann Gutenberg 82

3.7.2 The spread of printing 84

3.8 Astronomy and Central Europe 85

3.8.1 Georg Peurbach 85

3.8.2 Regiomontanus 86

3.8.3 Hartmann Schedel 87

3.8.4 Peter Apian 89

3.9 Paradigm shift: heliocentrism with circular orbits 91

3.9.1 Nicholas Copernicus 92

3.9.2 Tycho Brahe 94

3.9.3 Galileo 97

3.9.4 Rene Descartes 99

3.10 Paradigm shift: heliocentrism with elliptical orbits 101

3.10.1 Johannes Kepler 101

3.10.2 Follow-up to Kepler 102

3.11 Bibliography 103

4 European constellation development 107

4.1 Classical Greeks 107

4.1.1 Aratus' Phaenomena 108

4.1.2 Eratosthenes' Catasterismi 109

4.1.3 Hipparchus' star catalog 109

4.1.4 Geminos' Introduction to the Phenomena 109

4.1.5 Ptolemy's star catalog 110

4.1.6 Hyginus' Poeticon Astronomicon 114

4.2 Islamic constellations 114

4.2.1 Arab star names 114

4.2.2 Al-Sufi and his Book of Fixed Stars 115

4.3 Constellations and the Age of Exploration 117

4.3.1 Navigating the oceans 117

4.3.2 Filling gaps in the Southern Hemisphere 118

4.3.2.1 Amerigo Vespucci 118

4.3.2.2 Andreas Corsali 118

4.3.2.3 Petrus Plancius, Pieter Keyser, and

Frederick de Houtman 119

4.3.2.4 Edmond Halley 121

4.3.2.5 Nicolas de Lacaille 124

4.3.2.6 Sir John Frederick William Herschel 126

4.3.3 Filling gaps in the Northern Hemisphere 126

4.3.3.1 Gerard Mercator 126

4.3.3.2 Johannes Hevelius 126

4.4 Obsolete constellations 127

4.5 Bibliography 130

5 Early European star maps 133

5.1 The manuscript era 133

5.2 Early printed constellation images 136

5.2.1 Erhard Ratdolt and Hyginus' Poeticon Astronomicon . . 136

5.2.2 An early printed edition of Aratus' Phaenomena 136

5.2.3 Aldus Manutius and Aratus' Phaenomena 137

5.3 Albrecht Durer and the first printed star maps 138

5.3.1 Life and times 138

5.3.2 Durer's celestial hemispheres 140

5.4 Johannes Honter and his geocentric hemispheres 140

5.4.1 Life and times 140

5.4.2 Honter's celestial hemispheres 142

5.5 Alessandro Piccolomini and the first printed star atlas 142

5.5.1 Life and times 142

5.5.2 De le Stelle Fisse 143

5.6 Giovanni Paolo Gallucci and his coordinate system 145

5.6.1 Life and times 145

5.6.2 Theatrum Mundi, et Temporis 145

5.7 Thomas Hood: setting the stage for the Golden Age 146

5.7.1 Life and times 146

5.7.2 The Use of the Celestial Globe 146

5.8 Bibliography 148

6 The "Big Four" of the Golden Age of pictorial star maps 151

6.1 Star map conventions 151

6.2 Johann Bayer 153

6.2.1 Life and times 153

6.2.2 Uranometria 155

6.2.3 Derivative atlases 156

6.2.3.1 Julius Schiller 156

6.2.3.2 Aegidius Strauch 157

6.2.3.3 Ignace-Gaston Pardies 159

6.2.3.4 Augustine Royer 159

6.2.3.5 John Bevis 160

6.2.3.6 Philippe de la Hire 162

6.3 Johannes Hevelius 162

6.3.1 Life and times 162

6.3.2 The Prodromus Astronomiae and the Catalogus Stellarum Fixarum 164

6.3.3 Firmamentum Sobiescianum 164

6.3.4 Derivative atlases 167

6.3.4.1 Johann Zahn 167

6.3.4.2 Petrus Schenck 169

6.3.4.3 Georg Christoph Eimmart 170

6.3.4.4 Johann Leonhard Rost 170

6.3.4.5 Mattheus Seutter 170

6.3.4.6 Christoph Semler 171

6.3.4.7 Tobias Conrad Lotter 171

6.3.4.8 Johann Doppelmayr/Johann Homann 171

6.4 John Flamsteed 172

6.4.1 Life and times 172

6.4.2 Historiae Coelestis Britannicae 172

6.4.3 Atlas Coelestis 173

6.4.4 Derivative atlases 175

6.4.4.1 John Hill 175

6.4.4.2 Jean Fortin 176

6.4.4.3 Johann Bode 176

6.4.4.4 Maximilian Hell 177

6.4.4.5 Kornelius Reissig 177

6.4.4.6 Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 177

6.5 Johann Bode 179

6.5.1 Life and times 179

6.5.2 Anleitung zur Kenntniss des Gestirnten Himmels and Bode's Law 180

6.5.3 Vorstellung der Gestirne 182

6.5.4 Uranographia 183

6.5.5 Derivative atlases 184

6.5.5.1 Christian Friedrich Goldbach 184

6.5.5.2 Alexander Jamieson 185

6.5.5.3 Urania's Mirror 185

6.5.5.4 Elijah H. Burritt 188

6.5.5.6 Joseph J. von Littrow 188

6.6 Bibliography 189

7 Other important star maps of the Golden Age 191

7.1 Andreas Cellarius 191

7.1.1 Life and times 191

7.1.2 Harmonia Macrocosmica 192

7.2 Athanasius Kircher 194

7.2.1 Life and times 194

7.2.2 Books of astronomical interest 196

7.3 Alain Manneson Mallet 197

7.3.1 Life and times 197

7.3.2 Description de l'Univers 199

7.4 Vincenzo Maria Coronelli 199

7.4.1 Life and times 199

7.4.2 Books with celestial plates 201

7.5 John Seller 202

7.5.1 Life and times 202

7.5.2 Atlas Maritimus 203

7.5.3 Atlas Coelestis 204

7.6 John Senex 205

7.6.1 Life and times 205

7.6.2 Celestial maps 205

7.7 Corbinianus Thomas 207

7.7.1 Life and times 207

7.7.2 Mercurii Philosophici Firmamentum 207

7.8 Johann Doppelmayr 209

7.8.1 Life and times 209

7.8.2 Johann Baptist Homann 209

7.8.3 Atlas Coelestis 209

7.9 Antonio Zatta 211

7.9.1 Life and times 211

7.9.2 Atlante Novissimo 211

7.10 Samuel Dunn 212

7.10.1 Life and times 212

7.10.2 A New Atlas of the Mundane System 212

7.11 Antoine and Nicolas de Fer 214

7.11.1 Life and times 214

7.11.2 L'Atlas Curieux 215

7.12 Philippe de la Hire 216

7.12.1 Life and times 216

7.12.2 Celestial maps 217

7.13 Pierre-Charles Le Monnier 217

7.13.1 Life and times 217

7.13.2 Celestial maps 218

7.14 The French Cassini Family 219

7.14.1 Life and times 219

7.14.2 Celestial maps of Giovanni Domenico (or Jean Dominique) Cassini 221

7.15 Giovanni Maria Cassini 221

7.15.1 Life and times 221

7.15.2 Celestial maps 222

7.16 Bibliography 223

8 Special topics 225

8.1 Celestial globes and gores 225

8.1.1 Early examples 227

8.1.2 Celestial gores 229

8.1.3 Important globe makers in Europe 230

8.2 Volvelles 234

8.2.1 What were volvelles? 234

8.2.2 How did volvelles work? 236

8.2.3 Planispheres and the demise of volvelles 239

8.3 Astronomical instruments before the telescope 240

8.3.1 Antikythera mechanism 240

8.3.2 Astrolabe 241

8.3.3 Nocturnal 243

8.3.4 Cross-staff and back-staff 244

8.3.5 Octants, sextants, and quadrants 244

8.3.5.1 Tycho Brahe's Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica 245

8.3.5.2 Hevelius' Machinae Coelestis 247

8.4 The telescope 251

8.5 Non-stellar heavenly bodies 253

8.5.1 Sun and planets 253

8.5.2.1 Hevelius' Selenographia and Riccioli's Lunar Map 256

8.5.2.2 Later maps of the Moon 259

8.5.3 Eclipses 262

8.5.4 Comets 264

8.5.4.1 Stanislaw Lubieniecki's Theatrum Cometicum . 264

8.5.4.2 Edmond Halley's comet 267

8.5.4.3 Charles Messier's catalog 267

8.6 Bibliography 268

9 Mapping the stars in early America 271

9.1 The almanacs 271

9.2 Jedidiah Morse 274

9.3 Early American star maps 274

9.3.1 Bartholomew Burges 274

9.3.2 Enoch Gridley 274

9.3.3 William Croswell 275

9.4 Elijah H. Burritt 277

9.4.1 Life and times 277

9.4.2 The Geography of the Heavens and its Atlas 277

9.5 Astronomy education in the schools 279

9.5.2 John Vose 279

9.5.3 Denison Olmsted 280

9.5.4 Asa Smith 280

9.6 O.M. Mitchel 282

9.6.1 Life and times 282

9.6.2 Mitchel's edition of Burritt's book and atlas 284

9.6.3 The Planetary and Stellar Worlds 285

9.6.4 Popular Astronomy 289

9.6.5 The Astronomy of the Bible 289

9.7 Bibliography 290

10 The transition to non-pictorial star maps 291

10.1 The 1800s: A century of transition 291

10.1.1 Factors pushing for change 291

10.1.2 Star maps with subdued constellation images 292

10.1.2.1 Wollaston's Portraiture of the Heavens 292

10.1.2.2 Stieler's Hand-Atlas 293

10.1.3 Star maps with connecting-line constellation images. . . . 295

10.1.3.1 The Atlas CĂ©leste of Dien and Flammarion . . 295

10.1.3.2 Proctor's Half-Hours with the Stars 299

10.1.3.3 Ball's Atlas of Astronomy 300

10.1.4 Star maps with no constellation images 302

10.1.4.1 Argelander's Bonner Durchmusterung 302

10.1.4.2 Dreyer's New General Catalogue 304

10.1.4.3 Other star maps with no constellation images . 305

10.1.5 Astrophotography and its influence on star maps 305

10.1.5.1 Early impact 305

10.1.5.2 Carte du Ciel project 306

10.1.5.3 Other photographic star maps 306

10.2 The 20th and 21st Centuries 307

10.2.1 Annie Jump Cannon and the Henry Draper Catalog . . . 307

10.2.2 Constellation boundaries and the I.A.U 308

10.2.3 Major atlases of the 20th Century 309

10.2.3.1 Norton's Star Atlas 309

10.2.3.2 Becvar and his celestial atlases 311

10.2.3.3 Tirion and his celestial atlases 313

10.2.4 Other contemporary star maps and atlases 316

10.3 Bibliography 319

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