Dinah L Moch PhD

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Moché, Dinah L., date. Astronomy : a self-teaching guide / Dinah L. Moché—7th ed.

p. cm. — (Wiley self-teaching guides ; 190) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-23083-1 (paper) 1. Astronomy. I. Title. QB45.2.M63 2009 520—dc22

2009025983

Printed in the United States of America

10 987654321

CREDITS

We thank the American Astronomical Society for providing dozens of press releases, fact sheets, and celestial images. This service enables us to keep this text accurate and up to date.

Figures are courtesy of the following organizations and individuals: David Aguilar/Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics: 7.8 California Association for Research in Astronomy (adapted from): 2.15 C.S.I.R.O.: 2.17, 6.19c ESA/NASA/SOHO: 4.1, 4.8 ESO: 6.3, 6.16c

Ann Feild/Space Science Telescope Institute: 6.23

Gemini Observatory/Neelon Crawford-Polar Fine Arts: 2.6

The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA: 6.21

Hubble Space Telescope WFPC Team, NASA, STScI: 6.16a

Dr. Thomas Jarrett: 6.17

Lowell Observatory: 9.22

Dinah L. Moché/George Tremberger Jr.: I.2, I.3, 1.12, 2.4, 3.8, 3.9, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.20, 4.6, 5.3, 5.10 ([selected] data from Barbara J. Anthony-Twarog), 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.12, 6.24a, 6.24b, 6.25, 7.1, 7.2, 7.4, 8.1 ([selected] from NASA), 8.2, 8.4, 8.11, 8.12, 9.12, 9.14, 9.15, 10.8

NASA: I.1, 5.1a, 5.14, 8.14 (adapted), 8.16, 9.2, 9.6, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.18, 9.19, 9.21, 9.23,

9.26, 9.27, 10.1, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 11.1, 11.4, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5 NASA, Reta Beebe, and Amy Simon (New Mexico State University): 9.20 NASA/CXC/ASU/J. Hester, et al.: 5.12b NASA/CXC/CfA/R. Kraft, et al.: 6.19a NASA/CXC/MIT/F. K. Baganoff, et al.: 6.11 NASA and ESA: 6.16d NASA/ESA/ASU/J. Hester & A. Loll: 5.12a NASA and STScI: 6.16f

NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team: I.4

NASA, ESA, R. Gendler, T. Lauer (NOAO/AURA/NSF) and A. Feild (STScI): 6.14

NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration: 6.16b, 6.16e

NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, and A. Evans

(University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University): 6.20 NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA): 5.9, 6.2 NASA, ESA and T. Lauer (NOAO/AURA/NSF): 6.9

NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of

Washington: 9.1a, 9.1b NASA/JPL-Caltech: 6.10, 9.17

NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Meixner (STScI) & the SAGE Legacy Team: 6.13 NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC): 12.2 NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. Minn./R. Gehrz : 5.12c NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute: 9.24 NASA/JPL/STScI: 9.25

NASA, Steve Lee (University of Colorado), Jim Bell (Cornell University), Mike Wolff

(Space Science Institute): 9.16 NASA/WMAP Science Team: 7.9

National Optical Astronomy Observatories: 1.3, 5.11, 6.1, 6.5, 6.22a

National Radio Astronomy Observatory/AUI, J. O. Burns, E. J. Schrier, and E. D. Feigelson: 6.18

Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI and Earth image courtesy of the SeaWiFS Project

NASA/GSFC and ORBIMAGE: 2.18 J. William Schopf, Elso S. Barghoorn, Morton D. Masser, and Robert O. Gordon: 12.1 Dr. Martin Schwartzchild, Princeton University: 4.10 Seth Shostak: 12.7

Aurore Simonnet, Sonoma State University, NASA E/PO: 2.19 SOHO (ESA & NASA): 4.7a, 4.12, 4.13

SOHO (ESA & NASA); assembled by Steele Hill (NASA GSFC): 4.11, 4.12, 4.13 SOHO/MDI magnetic map, white light, TRACE 1700A continuum, TRACE Lyman alpha, TRACE 171A, TRACE 195A, TRACE 284A, YOHKOH/SXT X-ray image; composite prepared by Joe Covington (Lockheed-Martin Missiles and Space, Palo Alto): 4.7b (clockwise from top) STScI and NASA: 2.12 Tass/Sovfoto: 9.7 United States Air Force: 11.10 Courtesy John Walker: 4.5 Ryan Wyatt (adapted from): 8.3

Photo Insert

Page 1 top: NASA/Lockheed Martin [images from the NASA Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), the Large Angle and Spectrometric coronagraph (LASCO), and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) telescopes on the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)]; page 1 bottom: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech; page 2 top: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/R.Kraft et al; Radio: NSF/VLA/Univ.Hertfordshire/M.Hardcastle; Optical: ESO/VLT/ISAAC/M. Rejkuba, et al; page 2 bottom: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); page 3 top left and right: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); page 3 bottom: NASA/WMAP Science Team; page 4 top: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Wesleyan Univ./R. Kilgard, et al; UV: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Optical: NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith & Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ Univ. of AZ/R. Kennicutt; page 4 bottom: X-ray: NASA/UMass/Q. D. Wang, et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI/AURA/Hubble Heritage; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. AZ/R. Kennicutt/SINGS Team

Tables and illustrations are adapted, redrawn, or used by permission of the following authors and publishers:

Table 1.1: Robert Garrison and Toomas Karmo, Observer's Handbook 2008, with permission of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Table 2.1: Astronomy: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd edition, by Robert Jastrow and Malcolm H. Thompson. Copyright © 1972, 1974, 1977 by Robert Jastrow (John Wiley & Sons, New York).

Table 3.1 (adapted); 11.2 (selected): Allen's Astrophysical Quantities, 4th edition.

Copyright © 1999 by A. N. Cox, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York). Table 6.2 (adapted): Realm of the Universe, by George O. Abell. Copyright © 1964, 1969, 1973, 1980, by Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Copyright © 1976 by George O. Abell. Used by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Tables 8.2 and 8.3: (selected) National Aeronautics and Space Administration public information. Updates by JPL's Solar System Dynamics Group, URL: http://ssd .jpl.nasa.gov/sat_elem.html Tables 10.2 and 10.3: with permission from Solar Eclipses: 1996-2020 and Lunar Eclipses:

1996-2020, by Fred Espenak, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Tables 8.3 and 11.1: (selected) Brian G. Marsden, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

Appendix 5: Alan Batten, Observer's Handbook 2009, with permission of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada.

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