Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vii

A NOTE ON SOURCES ix

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 THE NAKED-EYE VIEW OF THE SKY 14

3 THOMAS WRIGHT: VISIONARY OF STELLAR SYSTEMS 35

4 WILLIAM HERSCHEL: NATURAL HISTORIAN OF THE UNIVERSE 74

5 WILHELM STRUVE: SEEKER OF PARALLAX 120

6 WILLIAM HUGGINS: PIONEER OF

THE NEW ASTRONOMY 165

7 JACOBUS KAPTEYN: MASTERMIND WITHOUT A TELESCOPE 206

8 HARLOW SHAPLEY: CHAMPION OF

THE BIG GALAXY 245

9 EDWIN HUBBLE: REDEEMER OF

ISLAND UNIVERSES 293

10 THE MILKY WAY REVEALED 347

NOTES 370

REFERENCES 385

IND E X 393

i Bílrenfs J Sea jE J/ J fy iE* s-St. Petersburg ji y-Edinb u rgh^TA fl 1 9

KSt .-¿Sunderland ^Copenhagen

, Moscow Königsberg fS^msterdam ^Berlin I

Bordeaux Munich Ismail ^

Madrid

W San

Fernando atania

Mediterranean Sea

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